Development of Emulsion Gel Sunscreen Containing Olive Oil and Clove Oil
Sunlight contributes to the healing of multiple health conditions, including in respiratory diseases such as Covid-19, by boosting the immune system. Nevertheless, too much sun exposure can cause sunburn and lead to skin cancer. To minimize the harms of excessive sun exposure, the skin needs to be strictly shielded with the use of sunscreen. This study aimed to develop an olive oil and clove oil emulsion gel preparation and determine its sun protective factor (SPF) value. Olive oil was formulated into an emulsion gel with varying concentrations of 2%, 4%, and 6%, and then 5% of clove oil was added. Physicochemical properties such as organoleptic, homogeneity, pH values, viscosity, and spreadability were tested. Further, UV protection was examined based on determining the SPF value, and the stability of preparation was evaluated using real-time and freeze-thaw methods. The results showed that the preparation had a good physicochemicality, while the SPF value was 20.91 ± 0.29, 22.52 ± 0.52, and 23.39 ± 0.45, respectively. However, the results of the stability test showed a significant change in the pH and SPF value after storage. It can be concluded that the emulsion gel of olive oil and clove oil preparation could be considered to have a medium level of protection of sunscreen.
Keywords: olive oil, clove oil, emulsion gel, sunscreen, UV protection, stability
 A. Asyary and M. Veruswati, “Sunlight exposure increased Covid-19 recovery rates: A study in the central pandemic area of Indonesia.,” Science of the Total Environment. vol. 729, no. January, p. 2020.
 L.J. Utama, A.E. Yunianto, I. Shagti, et al., “Impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on eating habits and lifestyle : An east nusa tenggara survey.,” European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine. vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 162–171, 2020.
 N.R. Mayasari, D. Khanh, N. Ho, et al., “Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on food security and diet-related lifestyle behaviors: An analytical study of google trendsbased query volumes.,” Nutrients. vol. 12, no. 3103, pp. 1–12, 2020.
 L. Alfredsson, B.K. Armstrong, D. Allan Butterfield, et al., “Insufficient Sun Exposure has Become a Real Public Health Problem.,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. vol. 17, no. 14, pp. 1–15, 2020.
 M. Sander, M. Sander, T. Burbidge, and J. Beecker, “The efficacy and safety of sunscreen use for the prevention of skin cancer.,” Cmaj. vol. 192, no. 50, pp. E1802– E1808, 2020.
 Y.I. Rahman and W. Solandjari, “MUTU FISIK DAN NILAI SPF SEDIAAN KRIM TABIR SURYA EKSTRAK KULIT BUAH NANAS (Ananas Comosus. L).,” p. 2018.
 C.D. Kaur and S. Saraf, “In vitro sun protection factor determination of herbal oils used in cosmetics.,” Pharmacognosy Research. vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 22–25, 2010.
 O.H. Alfeetouri, F.A. Mosa, and W.A. Jibreel, “Determination of Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of Some Botanical Oils by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry.,” In: The Libyan Conference on Chemistry and Its Applications (LCCA. pp. 52–58 (2019).
 A.A. Khalil, U.U. Rahman, M.R. Khan, A. Sahar, T. Mehmood, and M. Khan, “Essential oil eugenol: Sources, extraction techniques and nutraceutical perspectives.,” RSC Advances. vol. 7, no. 52, pp. 32669–32681, 2017.
 C. Jimenez-lopez, M. Carpena, C. Lourenço-lopes, et al., “Bioactive Compounds and Quality of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.,” Foods. vol. 9, no. 1014, p. 2020.
 T. Farjami and A. Madadlou, “An overview on preparation of emulsion-filled gels and emulsion particulate gels.,” Trends in Food Science and Technology. vol. 86, no. July 2018, pp. 85–94, 2019.
 J. Pereira, R. Gonçalves, M. Barreto, et al., “Development of gel-in-oil emulsions for Khellin topical delivery.,” Pharmaceutics. vol. 12, no. 5, p. 2020.
 D. Rahmasari, E. Hendradi, and U. Chasanah, “Formulation and evaluation of hand sanitizer gel containing infused of binahong leaf (Anredera cordifolia) as antibacterial preparation.,” Farmasains : Jurnal Farmasi dan Ilmu Kesehatan. vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 23– 30, 2020.
 D. Rahmasari, A. Juwanti, I. Pratiwi, N.Z. Diana, R.W. Nugraheni, and D.N. Rakhma, “Antioxidant and UV Protection Activities of Squid (Loligo sp.) Ink Powder Lotions.,” Borneo Journal of Pharmacy. vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 22–28, 2021.
 L. Indriarini, D. Rahmasari, M. Savira, D. Ayu S.A., Y. Nur Bayu A., and U. Chasanah, “AKTIVITAS PERLINDUNGAN UV DAN ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK KULIT JERUK (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) DALAM NANOGEL TABIR SURYA.,” Jurnal Farmagazine. vol. VIII, no. 2, pp. 20–25, 2021.
 A. Kumar and J.. Dua, “Formulation and Evaluation of Itraconazole Niosomal Gel.,” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development. vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 76– 80, 2018.
 E.W. Fitriani, E. Imelda, C. Kornelis, and C. Avanti, “Karakterisasi dan Stabilitas Fisik Mikroemulsi Tipe A/M Dengan Berbagai Fase Minyak.,” Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 31–44, 2016.
 H.C. Himawan, E. Masaenah, and V.C.E. Putri, “AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN SPF SEDIAAN KRIM TABIR KULIT BUAH PISANG AMBON ( Musa acuminata Colla ).,” Jurnal Farmamedika. vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 73–81, 2018.
 M. Majeed, S. Majeed, R. Jain, et al., “A randomized study to determine the sun protection factor of natural pterostilbene from pterocarpus marsupium.,” Cosmetics. vol. 7, no. 1, p. 2020.
 V.C.K.N. Deuschle, R.A.N. Deuschle, M.R. Bortoluzzi, and M.L. Athayde, “Physical chemistry evaluation of stability, spreadability, in vitro antioxidant, and photoprotective capacities of topical formulations containing calendula officinalis L. Leaf extract.,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 63–75, 2015.