Factors Affecting Community Compliance in Preventing COVID-19 Based on the Health Belief Model


COVID-19 cases in Indonesia are increasing. This has been caused by several factors, such as the lack of compliance and the negative perception that COVID-19 is not a dangerous disease. This study used the health belief model to analyze the factors influencing community compliance in preventing COVID-19. This was a descriptive quantitative study with a cross-sectional approach. The participants included 130 residents of Saronggi District, Sumenep Regency. Data were collected through a questionnaire about compliance and perceptions based on the health belief model. Perceptions of vulnerability, seriousness, benefits, barriers and actions were examined, along with their association with COVID-19 prevention compliance. The data were analyzed using an ordinal regression test. Compliance in preventing COVID-19 was measured as obedient in 75 people (57.69%), quite obedient in 17 people (13.07%), and not obedient in 38 people (29.24%). Meanwhile, based on the findings, the dominant factors that influenced compliance were perceived benefits (p = 0.001), perceived barriers (p = 0.023), and perceptions of action (p = 0.003). Public education about the dangers and prevention of COVID-19 needs to be improved by involving community leaders as role models so that community compliance will increase.

Keywords: perception, compliance, health belief model, COVID-19

[1] Dhama K, Khan S, Tiwari R, Sircar S, Bhat S, Malik YS, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019–COVID-19. Clinical microbiology reviews. 2020;33(4):e00028-20.

[2] Attamimy HB, Qomaruddin MB. Aplikasi health belief model pada perilaku pencegahan demam berdarah dengue. Jurnal Promkes: The Indonesian Journal of Health Promotion and Health Education. 2017;5(2):245-55.

[3] Riski P. Atasi Pandemi di Madura dengan Pendekatan Sosial-Budaya 2021 [Available from: https://www.voaindonesia.com/a/atasi-pandemi-di-madura-denganpendekatan-sosial budaya/5929182.html.

[4] Organization WH. Corona Virus Disease 2020 [Available from: https://www.who.int/data#reports

[5] Indonesia KKR. Jumlah Kasus Corona di Indonesia 2020 [Available from: https://www.kemkes.go.id/.

[6] Sumenep DK. Jumlah Kasus Covid-19 2021 [Available from: https://dinkes.sumenepkab.go.id/wellcome.html.

[7] Wong LP, Alias H, Wong PF, Lee HY, AbuBakar S. The use of the health belief model to assess predictors of intent to receive the COVID-19 vaccine and willingness to pay. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2020;16(9):2204-14.

[8] Costa MF. Health belief model for coronavirus infection risk determinants. Rev Saude Publica. 2020;54:47.

[9] Tong KK, Chen JH, Yu EWY, Wu AMS. Adherence to COVID-19 Precautionary Measures: Applying the Health Belief Model and Generalised Social Beliefs to a Probability Community Sample. Applied psychology Health and well-being. 2020;12(4):1205-23.

[10] Kartal A, Özsoy SA. Validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of Health Belief Model Scale in diabetic patients. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2007;44(8):1447-58.

[11] Wirawan GBS, Wisnawa ADF, Laksmi Dewi NLP. Determinan Perilaku Skrining (Screening) Diabetes Mellitus Di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Denpasar Barat I Dan II Dalam Kerangka Health Belief Model.

[12] Styawan DA, editor Pandemi Covid-19 Dalam Perspektif Demografi. Seminar Nasional Official Statistics; 2020.

[13] Cortis D. On determining the age distribution of covid-19 pandemic. Frontiers in public health. 2020;8:202.

[14] Alon T, Doepke M, Olmstead-Rumsey J, Tertilt M. The impact of COVID-19 on gender equality. National Bureau of economic research; 2020.

[15] Afro RC, Isfiya A, Rochmah TN. Analisis Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kepatuhan Terhadap Protokol Kesehatan Saat Pandemi Covid-19 Pada Masyarakat Jawa Timur: Pendekatan Health Belief Model. Journal Of Community Mental Health And Public Policy. 2020;3(1):1-10.