This paper assesses the main types of environmental impact caused by mineral exploration and mining. The ecological situation due to the extraction and processing of mineral raw materials in the mining regions, as well as the environmental impact of accumulated mining waste are shown. The results of environmental monitoring of the quality of the industrial urban environments of the Russian Federation are also presented. Based on the analysis of the database of existing man-made formations, including those produced from the rare metal deposits, the maps of their distribution over the territory of Russia as a whole and the territory of the Ural Federal District are compiled. The ranking of man-made deposits and formations by their impact on environmental elements has been performed.
Keywords: mining, industrial waste, heavy metals, ecosystem pollution, environmental safety