Several technologies of the preparation of nanocomposites based on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene were developed. The first technology is based on mechanical activation of layered silicates with surfactant before addition into polymer matrix. The second technology represents mixing of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene with nanoparticles by joint mechanical activation in a planetary mill. The third technology is based on mixing of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene with nanoparticles in liquid media under continuous ultrasonic treatment. Common features of these technologies are reaching of filler uniform distribution in a polymer matrix and significant improvement in the mechanical properties. Also, supramolecular structure of the composites was studied.