Analysis Of Surface Orange Peel Of Automotive Aluminum Alloy Pipe Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD)


The occurrence of orange peel in 6xxx alloy tube for automotive application was studied by super depth metallographic microscope and EBSD. The results revealed obvious ups and downs morphology at the surface after tube hydroforming. Compared with the undeformed case, more grains existed in the concave areas rather than individual out-of-plane displacement. The influence of surface orange peel on grain boundary morphology, crystal orientation, and texture are discussed. It is concluded, that surface orange peel is controlled by the spatial distribution of grain orientations and grain size through the thickness of the sample.

[1] W. J. Liang, P. A. Rometsch, L. F. Cao, and N. Birbilis, General aspects related to the corrosion of 6xxx series aluminium alloys: Exploring the influence of Mg/Si ratio and Cu, Corrosion Science, 76, 119 128, (2013).

[2] F. Hajializadeh and M. M. Mashhadi, Investigation and numerical analysis of impulsive hydroforming of aluminum 6061-T6 tube, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 20, 257–273, (2015).

[3] M. R. Stoudt, L. E. Levine, A. Creuziger, and J. B. Hubbard, The fundamental relationships between grain orientation, deformation-induced surface roughness and strain localization in an aluminum alloy, Materials Science and Engineering A, 530, no. 1, 107–116, (2011).

[4] P. D. Wu and D. J. Lloyd, Analysis of surface roughening in AA6111 automotive sheet, Acta Materialia, 52, no. 7, 1785–1798, (2004).

[5] D. Raabe, M. Sachtleber, H. Weiland, G. Scheele, and Z. Zhao, Grain-scale micromechanics of polycrystal surfaces during plastic straining, Acta Materialia, 51, no. 6, 1539–1560, (2003).

[6] P. D. Wu and D. J. Lloyd, Correlation of roping and texture in AA6111 automotive sheet, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 13, no. 6, 981–991, (2005).

[7] P. S. Lee, H. R. Piehler, B. L. Adams, G. Jarvis, H. Hampel, and A. D. Rollett, Influence of surface texture on orange peel in aluminum, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 80-81, 315–319, (1998).

[8] S. Cao, J. Zhang, J. Wu, and J. Chen, Analysis of orange peel defect in St14 steel sheet by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), Journal of Materials Science and Technology, 21, no. 1, 17–20, (2005).

[9] S. Kahl, R. L. Peng, M. Calmunger, B. Olsson, and S. Johansson, In situ EBSD during tensile test of aluminum AA3003 sheet, Micron, 58, 15–24, (2014).