Efficiency of Cultivating Corn for Grain under Irrigation in the Prialeyskaya Steppe
To assess the effectiveness of irrigation when cultivating corn for grain in the conditions of the arid Prialeyskaya steppe of the Altai Territory, an irrigation regime was developed to maintain pre-irrigation moisture at 60 and 70 % minimum moisture-holding capacity in the soil layer – 0.5 m. Water with irrigation was used mineralization of 0.3 g/l, it lacked toxic salts. In 2015, the irrigation norm with an irrigation regime of 60 % minimum moisture-holding capacity was 2650 m3/ha, with a regime of 70 % minimum moisture-holding capacity – 2850 m3/ha. In 2016, irrigation norms for irrigation regimes were 60 and 70 % minimum moisture-holding capacity of 2250 and 2450 m3/ha, respectively. In 2017, at the 60 % minimum moisture-holding capacity option, 7 irrigations were carried out, the irrigation rate was 2700 m3/ha. On the irrigation variant of 70 % of the minimum moisture-holding capacity, 8 irrigations were carried out, the irrigation rate was 2900 m3/ha. The highest yield of corn grain was obtained while maintaining a humidity level of at least 70 % minimum moisture-holding capacity. The maximum yield in 2015 was 6.7 t/ha, in the control – 3.8 t/ha. The yield increases on this option were significant in comparison not only with the control without irrigation, but also in comparison with the 60 % minimum moisture-holding capacity. To identify the economic efficiency of cultivating corn with irrigation, the costs of irrigation and the cost of the resulting crop were considered. The highest net income and profitability were obtained in 2016 with an irrigation regime of 70 % minimum moisture-holding capacity. Net income was 63.31 thousand rubles/ha, profitability level 370.45 %. In all years of research, the economic indicators for irrigation options were significantly superior to those for the non-irrigation option.
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