Phenotype and Genotype Differences of Meat Type “Tselinny” within Kalmyk Horse Breed


In the Republic of Kalmykia, the horse breeding segment is reaching up to 6 % of the whole agricultural industry. The number of horses has a tendency to increase. This is determined by the low cost, as well as by environmental friendliness of keeping horses, and horses’ adaptability to harsh conditions. There are four breeding plants on the territory of Kalmykia, which are actively involved in Kalmyk horses breed rearing. Recently a distinct meat-type was isolated within the Kalmyk breed, which was named “Tselinny” meat-type (further Tselinny). The goal of the presented paper is to compare purebred horses with a pool of horses belonging to newly isolated type Tselinny. Genotype of both populations consists of 14 and 15 alleles, as 84.4 % and 78.8 % of horses have these alleles (purebred and Tselinny type respectively). Animal of Tselinny meat-type do not have 16 and 17 alleles, while more than 10 % of purebred horses of the Kalmyk breed have these two alleles in their genotype. The difference in genotype is confirmed by the difference in phenotype: these are differences in size and meat productivity of horses. Both stallions and mares of Tsenilly meat type are bigger and have higher weight. When we come to the meat productivity, the weight of the meat from young animals of Tselinny type was by 21 % (45 kg) higher. Horses belonging to the Tselinny type differ from purebred animals of Kalmyk breed both in genotype and phenotype. At the same time, exemplar of both groups keep features of Kalmyk horse breed. It is important to develop different types within the breed, based on the intended goal of breeding.

[1] Bolaev, V.K., Mandzhiev, U.A. (2010). Perspectives of herd horse breeding in Republic of Kalmykia. Zootechniya, vol. 5, pp. 21–22.

[2] Gendghieva, O.B., Ruzina, M.N., Shtyfurko, T.A. et al. (2010). Polymorfism of BoLADRB3 gene at cattle of Mongolian, Kalmyk, Yakut breeds. Russian Journal of Genetics, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 517–525.

[3] Koveshnikov, V.S., Kalashnikova, V.V., Barminzev, U.N. et al. (2007). Development of meat herd horse in Russia. Guidelines. Moscow: FGNU «Rosinformagrotech».

[4] Selionova, M.I., Chizhova, L.N., Bobryshova, G.T. et al. (2018). Polymorfism of genes responsible for meat productivity and it's application for selection of cattle, in Proceedings of 83th Conference for Innovation Technologies in Agriculture, Veterinary and Food. Stavropol.

[5] Leonova, M.A. (2015). Esimation of productivity of pigs of different genotypes based on LIF, MC4R, PRLR genes. PhD dissertation. Persianovsky village.

[6] Polozyuk, O.N. (2013). Theoretical foundation and practical application of DNAgenotyping for pigs selection. PhD dissertation. Stavropol.

[7] Gerbens, F., van Erp, A.J., Harders, F.L. et al. (1999). Effect of genetic variants of the heart fatty acid-binding protein gene on intramuscular fat and performance traits in pigs. Journal Anim Sci., vol 77, no. 4, pp. 846–852.

[8] Rothshild, M.F., Jacobson, C., Vaske, D. et al. (1996). The estrogen receptor locus is associated with a major gene influencing litter size, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 93, pp. 201–205.

[9] Ubushieva, A.V., Moiseikina, L.G., Ubushaeva, V.S. et al. (2018). Determination of genofond of kalmyk bactrians using ISSR-analysis. Theoretical and applied problems of agro-industrial complex, no. 5, pp. 38–40.

[10] Usmanov, R.A. (2014). Genetic status and biological characteristics of mares of Kushumskaya breed of Astrakhan breeding. PhD dissertation thesis. Astrakhan.

[11] Dodokhov, V.V. (2017). Estimation of biological diversity of Yakut horse breed using DNA markers. PhD dissertation thesis. Yakutsk.