Environmental and Technological Problems of Rational Use of Secondary Resources for Processing Grapes
Rational use of grapes processing resources is among environmental problems of AIC of Republics of the North Caucasus and Krasnodar Territory. Currently, waste from grapes processing is not practically used and worsen the ecological state of environment. The research subject is a technology based on the production of cryo-powder from pulp, squeeze, seeds and grapes skin grown in the foothill and mountainous regions. The prerequisites for research were previously performed author works on related topics. The data on vacuum SHF-drying of grape raw materials and subsequent grinding in a cryomiller are given. Modes of preparation of grape raw materials and its subsequent dehydration and cryo-grinding, which provide the possibility of successful use in the dried state in the production technology of wine beverages, are proposed. The principal feature is the use of whole grapes as a raw material, with skin and seeds. Physico-chemical parameters, the content of phenolic substances and organoleptic characteristics of wine beverages made according to the traditional technology and the beverage made from grape cryo-powders are studied. A comparative assessment is made. It is established that vacuum SHF-drying contributes to better preservation of the properties of raw materials and finished products. The organoleptic assessment has shown that wine beverages developed according to the proposed technology had a more intense color and a more pronounced taste of sweetness and acid than traditional wine beverages. The advantage of this technology is the ability to transport grape cryo-powders in unregulated temperature conditions to any point close to the consumer and carry out the production of nutritional food there.
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