Effects of Dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs) and Dioxin-like (PCBs) Exposure on Neuro-development in Children: A Review


Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are widely spread in the environment and listed as POPs contaminants which in a certain level of exposure, it associated with neurodevelopmental defects in childhood. Studies in animals resulted in the association between dioxins and dioxin-like exposure and neuro-developmental
abnormalities. However, studies in human result varied association between exposure and neurodevelopment outcomes. This review was to observe variables in several publications about dioxins and dioxin-like exposure and its effects to neurodevelopment in children. Reviewed variables are dioxins and dioxin-like concentration in mother, breastfeeding duration, and neuro-developmental test scores. Six reviewed studies evaluated dioxins and dioxins like exposure and its effects in neuro-development in children. Reviewed studies were conducted in the highly contaminated area and area with no particular high exposure to dioxins or dioxin-like. This review resulted in the exposure through prenatal and perinatal, or breastfeeding was not clearly explaining the
effects on neurodevelopment in children. A subtle difference of neuro-developmental defects may not be able to be assessed only by neuro-developmental assessment tools. This review suggested evaluating background level of dioxins and dioxin-like in the environment, dietary intake in mother, examining specific congeners and its effects to cognitive and motor development aspects, and consider other methods to examine mild changes in children neurodevelopment such as neuropsychological measurement.

Keywords: Dioxin; Dioxin-like; neurodevelopment; children

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