Belief and Policy Influencing Nurses in Implementing Kangaroo Mother Care: A Systematic Review


5.9 million child deaths occurred in 2015, almost 1 million happened in the first day of life, and close to 2 million took place in the first week (UNICEF 2014). Respiratory distress syndrome, hypothermia, and sepsis were the leading causes of death among newborns. Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) for Low Birth Weight (LBW) in a community can improve survival, especially where the access to health facilities is limited. Although nurses play
an essential role in implementing KMC in the community, there is limited systematic information available on the factors that are influencing nurses in implementing KMC. This systematic review sought to identify the most frequent factors affecting nurses in implementing KMC. This study relies on PRISMA. We searched three electronic databases and relevant reference lists for publications reporting factors influencing nurses in implementing KMC. We identified 938 unique publications, of which 104 were included based on pre-specified criteria. Publications scanned for all factors affecting nurses in implementing KMC. Each paper was also categorized based on its approach to the identification of barriers. The remaining 15 articles spanning six years (2011-2016) included in this review. We identified factors that influence nurses in implementing kangaroo: the attitude of nurses is ambivalent, lack of knowledge, belief, lack of infrastructure, the physiological stability of baby, lack of standard operational procedures, lack of skills, institutional leadership and lack of policy. Three
of the top-ranked factors influencing KMC practice for nurses were: belief, lack of policy and lack of standard operational procedures (SOP).

Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC); nurses; barrier; policy; belief

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