EFFECTS OF CHROMIUM ON PROTEIN AND CARBOHYDRATE LEVELS IN THE MANTLE OF FRESHWATER MUSSEL <i>Anodonta woodiana</i> (Lea, 1834)
Chromium is one of the technical importance metals found in the aquatic environment at increasing concentrations, resulting from metallurgic, refractory, chemical, and tannery industries (Satyaparameshwar et al., 2006). The metal is known to be essential for all animals such as maintenance of normal glucose tolerance (Chassard-Bouchaud et al., 1989). It also involves in metabolisms of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and mineral substances (Pechova & Pavlata 2007). At elevated concentrations, chromium is toxic to mussels, resulting in changes of mRNA expression, immunomodulation, DNA stability, and stress response pathways (Franzellitti et al., 2012). Swan mussels (Anodonta woodiana) living at the interface of the free-flowing water and the sediment phase of many lotic freshwater ecosystems are known to accumulate metals in their body. Mussels require carbohydrates as main energy source for their metabolic processes (Honkoop et al., 1999). Proteins are also required by mussels for catalyzing biochemical reactions, transport and storage of molecules in and out, or within cells, and have structural and mechanical functions (Albert et al., 1994). Proteins and carbohydrates are also important components in the shell formation (Marie et al., 2007; Marin & Luquet 2004). Mantle secretes proteins and carbohydrates into extra pallial fluid, which is directly adjacent to the shell. The objective of this research was to study the effects of Cr on the protein and carbohydrate levels in the mantle of A. woodiana.
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