TORQUE TENO VIRUS/TOXOPLASMA/HIV TRIPLE INFECTION DETECTED IN HIV PATIENTS IN MOEWARDI GENERAL HOSPITAL SURAKARTA, INDONESIA
Torque Teno Virus infection (TTV) was reported increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who are progressing toward AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). Toxoplasmosis is considered one of the opportunistic infections for individuals with AIDS, and is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, there is no report about the presence of triple infection of TTV/Toxoplasma/HIV in Indonesian HIV patients. Aim of this study is to determine the TTVToxoplasma/HIV infection status in HIV patients in Moewardi General Hospital Surakarta, Indonesia. Blood samples from 51 HIV patients in Moewardi General Hospital Surakarta were collected in November 2011. The blood samples were aliquoted and fractionated. Plasma was used for IgM anti Toxoplasma and IgG anti Toxoplasma detection using ELISA. The nucleic acid was extracted from all plasma samples, and then subjected for Torque Teno Virus DNA detection using nested PCR assay. The positive results were confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. The IgM anti Toxoplasma and IgG anti Toxoplasma were positively detected in 23.5% (12/51) and 11.8% (6/ 51) HIV patients, respectively. Torque Teno Virus DNA was detected in 25.5% (13/51) patients. Three HIV patients co-infected with Torque Teno Virus were IgM anti Toxoplasma positive (5.9%, 3/51). This results indicate the need for adequate management of HIV patients, especially in the incident of triple infection of TTV/Toxoplasma/HIV.
Keywords: Torque Teno Virus, Toxoplasma, HIV, Indonesia.
Ganiem, A.R., S. Dian, A. Indriati, L. Chaidir, R. Wisaksana, P. Sturm, W. Melchers, A. van der Ven, I. Parwati, and R. van Crevel. 2013. Cerebral toxoplasmosis mimicking subacute meningitis in HIV-infected patients; a cohort study from Indonesia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol. 7:e1994.
Irshad, M., S. Singh, K. Irshad, S.K. Agarwal, and Y.K. Joshi. 2008. Torque teno virus: Its prevalence and isotypes in North India. World J Gastroenterol, vol. 14:6044-6051.
Laliberté, J., and V.B. Carruthers. 2008. Host cell manipulation by the human pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. Cell Mol Life Sci, vol. 65:1900-1915.
Maggi, F., and M. Bendinelli. 2009. Immunobiology of the Torque Teno Viruses and other Anneloviruses. In: TT viruses the still elusive human pathogens. Eds: de Villiers, E-M., zur Hausen, H. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Germany.
Nissapatorn, V. 2009. Toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS: a living legacy. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, vol. 40:1158-1178.
Pifferi, M., F. Maggi, C. Di Cristofano, A.M. Cangiotti, V. Ragazzo, L. Ceccherini Nelli, G. Bevilacqua, P. Macchia, M. Bendinelli, and A.L. Boner. 2008. Torquetenovirus infection and ciliary dysmotility in children with recurrent pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J, vol. 27:413-418.
Thom, K., and J. Petrik. 2007. Progression towards AIDS leads to increased Torque teno virus and Torque teno minivirus titers in tissues of HIV infected individuals. J Med Virol, vol. 79:1-7.
Yunihastuti, E., D. Imran, and N. Sukmana. 2005. Toxoplasma encephalitis in HIV-infected person. Acta Med Indo, vol. 37:49-50.