Genetic Variants of k-Casein and β-Lactoglobulin Genes and Their Association with Protein and Milk Components of Holstein Friesian Cows at Small Farmers in Lembang, West Java


Genetic variants of CSN3 and LGB genes and their effects on protein and milk components were studied in Holstein Friesian at small dairy farmers in Lembang District, West Java, Indonesia.  Allelic variants were identified by PCR-RFLP technique using restriction enzymes of Pst I for the CSN3 gene and Hae III for the LGB gene.  The CSN3 gene was dominated by AB genotype.   Milk protein was not affected by genotypes of the two genes.  Only fat content was significantly affected (P <0.05) by the CSN3 gene with AB cows having the highest fat to AA and BB cows (3.76% vs. 3.26% and 3.34%).

Keywords: CSN3 gene; LGB gene; milk protein; and milk component.

[1] Ferretti, L., P. Leone, and V. Sgaramella. 1990. Long range restriction analysis of the bovine casein genes. Nuc. Acids Res., 18: 6829-6833.

[2] Kűbarsepp, I., M. Henno, H. Viinalass and D. Sabre. 2005. Effect of κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin genotypes on the milk rennet coagulation properties. Agr. Res., 1:55–64.

[3] Azevedo, A. L. S., C. S. Nascimento, R. S. Steinberg, M. R. S. Carvalho, M. G. C. D. Peixoto, R. L. Teodoro, R. S. Verneque, S. E. F. Guimares, and M. A. Machado. 2008. Genetic polymorphism of the kappa-casein gene in Brazilian cattle. Genet. Mol. Res.7: 623-63.

[4] Kontopidis, G.C. Hol, and L. Sawyer. 2004. Inveted review: β-lactoglobulin: binding properties, structure, and function. J. Dairy Sci. 87:785-796.

[5] Meza, N.M.A, V.B. Cordob, A.F.G. Cordova, F. Felix, and M. Goycoolea. 2007. Effect of β-lactoglobulin A and B whey protein variants on the rennet-induced gelation of skim milk gels in a model reconstitude skim milk system. J. Dairy Sci. 90:582-593.

[6] Alipanah, M., L. Kalashnikova, and G. Rodionov. 2005. Kappa-Kasein genotypic frequencies in Russian breeds of Black and Red Pied cattle. Iran. J. Biotechnol. 3:191- 194.

[7] Karimi, K., M.T.B. Nassiry, K. Mirzadeh, A. Ashayerizadeh, H. Roushanfekr, and F. Fayyazi. 2009. Polymorphism of the β-lactoglobulin gene and its association with milk production traits in Iranian Nadji cattle. Iran J. Biotechnol. 7:2.

[8] The Codex Alimentarius Commision. 2011. Milk and Milk Products. 2nd Ed. World Health Organization. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome.

[9] Nei, M.,and S. Kumar. 2000. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics. Oxford University Press, New York.

[10] Weir, B.S. 1996. Genetic data analysis: Method for discrete population genetic data. 2nd ed. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates.

[11] Eigel, W. N., J. F. Butler, C. A. Ernstrom, H. M. Farrell, V. R. Harwalkar, R. Jennes, and R. McL Whitney. 1984. Nomenclature of proteins of cow’s milk. J.Dairy Sci. 67:1599- 1631.

[12] Lien, S. and S. Rogne. 1993. Bovine casein haplotypes: number frequencies and applicability as genetic markers. Anim. Genet. 24: 373-376.

[13] Pinders, J., B. N. Perryc, J. Skidmoraend, & D. Sawa. 1991. Analysis of polymorphism in the bovine casein genes by use of the polymerase chain reaction. Anim. Genet. 22:11-20.

[14] Beata, S., N. Wojciech, and W. Ewa. 2008. Relations between kappa-casein polymorphism (CSN3) and milk performance traits in heifer cows. J. Cent. Eur. Agric. 9: 641-644.

[15] Bob. G., D.C. Beitz, A.E. Freeman, and G.L. Lindberg. 1999. Effect of milk protein genotypes on milk protein composition and its genetic parameter estimates. J Dairy Sci. 82:2797-2804

[16] Lin, C.Y., A. J. Mcallister, K.F. Ng-Kwai-Hang and J.F. Hayes. 1986. Effects of milk protein loci on first lactation production in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 69: 704-712.

[17] Eenennaam, A. J. V. and J. F. Medrano. 1991. Milk protein polymorphisms in California dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 1730-1740.

[18] Ojala, M., T.R. Famula and F. Medrano. 1997. Effects of milk protein genotypes on the variation for milk production traits of Holstein and Jersey cows in California. J. Dairy Sci. 80 (1):776-178.