This research aimed to examine the effect of a microbial transglutaminase preparation (Activa® GS, Ajinomoto Co., Inc, Japan) on the structure formation of the myofibrillar protein system of a deep-sea fish species – the giant grenadier – after the addition of various protein substrates. The low content of proteins and their low water-holding capacity in this fish, subjected to various processing methods, leads to significant losses in the initial mass and decreased gelation ability in the muscle tissue system. Various concentrations of transglutaminase were used but these did not ensure the restructuring of the initial muscle tissue of the grenadier. Additional protein substrates with different molecular weights and amino acid composition were added, including gelatin, milk casein, hydrolysates of the skin and milt of the fish, and whole bivalves, which were used to create a firm structure. It was shown that the introduction of gelatin and casein at a concentration of 5% led to the formation of a firm, thermostable structure under the action of the enzyme, while hydrolyzed proteins with low molecular weight at their various concentrations enhanced the expression of water and formation of the fluid consistency. The ability of gastrointestinal tract proteases (pepsin and trypsin) to digest did not depend on the formation of protein-to-protein cross-linking in these combined products. The influence on the growth of the Tetrahymena pyriformis ciliates test culture also showed the high degree of product availability. The technology of molded products based on fermented minced muscle tissue of grenadier with added casein, both in the form of semi-finished products and in the form of ready-to-eat products, was developed.
Keywords: transglutaminase, muscle tissue, structure formation, deep-sea fish