The Functional Properties of Bread Enriched with Essential Fatty Acids
We developed ω-3-enriched bread by adding a liposomal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) concentrate to the bread recipe. We determined that subsequent feeding of the ω-3-enriched bread to experimental animals in the alimentary dyslipidaemia state led to normalisation of the lipid profile of the blood serum, with a decrease in the total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density and very lowdensity lipoproteins. The high-density lipoproteins, antioxidants, reduced glutathione and glutathione reductase activity index increased compared to the corresponding indicators in animals with alimentary dyslipidaemia that were fed bread without ω-3. The ω-3-enriched bread diet significantly decreased harmful oxidation products (diene conjugates and malondialdehyde) in the blood plasma, erythrocytes and liver. Therefore, the results suggested that bread enriched with ω-3 fatty acids is a functional food with hypolipidaemic action. The results on the total content of fatty acids in lipids from bread samples prepared according to a standard recipe and bread enriched with concentrate showed that the relative content of omega-3 PUFAs in the fortified bread significantly increased by 3.2 times compared to bread without the addition of concentrate. The additive did not change the consumer qualities of the finished product (taste and smell of the bread).
Keywords: alimentary dyslipidaemia, antioxidant effect, bread, functional food, lipid profile, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
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