Theoretical Analysis of Ammonium-perchlorate Based Composite Propellants with RDX Containing Small Size Particles of Beryllium
Rocket engines have been developed for at least the last six decades. There is a need to improve the actual solid propellant grain for rocket engines through the addiction of metallic fuels in the mixture as well as the addiction of energetic binders to stabilize the combustion. The rocket industry expects the launchers to be reliable, to be faster, stable and to have longer times of operation for the most possible payload weight (operational envelope). New propellants should have optimized ignition and combustion time rates reducing the possibility of negative oxygen balance thus reducing detonation process. Deflagration process should be optimized for best performance of the rocket. In this evolution, small quantities of explosives have been used in the propellant in order to increase the operational burning time, hence, the specific impulse. Adding metallic fuels such as aluminum, boron or beryllium on double based composite propellants and ammonium perchlorate are expected to increase the propellant density over chemical stability and aging resistance. The study of heterogeneous propellants containing large amounts of fine beryllium and ammonium perchlorate, it is necessary to understand the combustion products so to a proper evaluation of specific impulse, Mach number and mass flow of the mixture. In this study a mixture with nitramides (RDX – Cyclotrimethylene trinitramide) and ammonium perchlorate was analyzed with and without the addiction of small size particles of beryllium using a numerical algorithm. Therefore, this study relates the influence of beryllium in the performance parameters of ammonium perchlorate based composite propellants.
Keywords: Propellant, Rocket engine, RDX, Ammonium perclorate
 S. Gallier, and F. Godfroy. Aluminium Combustion Driven Instabilities in Solid Rocket Motors. Journal of Propulsion and Power 25.2 (2009): 509-521.
 M. Stephens, E. Petersen, R. Carro, D. Reid and S. Seal. Multi-parameter Study of Nanoscale TiO2 and CeO2 Additives in Composite AP/HTPB Solid Propellants. Propellants, Explosives and Pyrotechnics 35 (2010): 143-152.
 V. Babuk, I. Dolotkazin, A. Gamsov, A. Glebov, L. Deluca and L. Galfetti. Nanoaluminium as Solid Propellant Fuel. Journal of Propulsion and Power 25.2 (2009): 482- 489.
 M. Li, F. Li, R. Shen and X. Guo. Molecular Dynamics Study of the Structures and Properties of RDX/GAP Propellant. Journal of Hazardous Materials 186 (2011): 2031-2036.
 M. Beckstead, K. Puduppakkam, P. Thakre and V. Yang, V. Modeling of Combustion and Ignition of Solid Propellant Ingredients. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 33 (2007): 497-551.
 T. Zhou and F. Huang. Effects of Defects on Thermal decomposition of HMX via ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulations. J. Phys. Chem. B 115 (2011): 278-287.
 M. Beckstread. Solid Propellant Combustion Mechanisms and Flame Structure. Pure Applied Chemistry 5.2 (1994): 297-307.
 A. Tahsini and M. Farshchi. Thrust Termination Dynamics of Solid Propellant Rocket Motors. Journal of Propulsion and Power 23.5 (2007): 1141-1142.
 A. Ulas, Y. Lu and K. Kuo. Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of RDX-Based Pseudopropellants. Science and Technology 175 (2003): 695-270.
 W. Cai, P. Thakre and V. Yang. A Model of AP/HTPB Composite Propellant Combustion in Rocket Motor Environments. Combustion Science and Technology 180 (2008): 2143-2169.
 V. Arkhipov, M. Gorbenko, T. Gorbenko and L. Savel’eva. Effects of Ultrafine Aluminium on the Combustion of Composite Solid Propellants at Subatmosfetic Pressures. Combustion, Explosion and Shock Waves 45.1 (2009): 40-47.
 W. Li. Combustion Behavior and Thermochemical Properties of RDX-Based Solid Propellants. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 23.3 (1998): 128-136.
 W. Jing, Z. Dang and G. Yang. The Thermal Decomposition Behavior of RDX-Base Propellants. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 79.1 (2005): 107-113.
 M. Beckstead. Recent Progress in Modeling Solid Propellant Combustion. Translated from Fizika Goreniya i Vzryva 42.6 (2006): 4-24.
 B. Chen, Z. Xia, L. Huang, J. Hu. Ignition and combustion model of a single boron particle. Fuel Processing Technology, 165 (2017), 34- 43.
 M. Barrére, A. Jaumotte, D. Veubere, J. Vanderkersckhove. Rocket Propulsion. Elsevier Publishing Company (1960).
 G. Sutton. Rocket Propulsion. John Wiley & Sons (2001).
 http://www.nakka./rocketry.net/techref.html, consulted at August (2012).
 N. Kubota. Propellants and Explosives – Thermochemical Aspects of Combustion. John Wiley & Sons (2007).
 V. Thottempudi, H. Gao and J. Shreve. Trinitromethyl-substituted 5-nitro- or 3-azo- 1,2,4-triazoles: Synthesis, Characterization and Energetic Properties. Journal of American Chemistry Society 133.16 (2011): 6464-6471.
 http://www.cache.fujitsu.com/mopac/Mopac2002manual/table_of_heats.html, consulted January (2018).
 http://kinetics.nist.gov/janaf/, consulted September (2018).
 Figueiredo, P. Theoretical analysis of an AP, RDX, Boron propellant. MSc Thesis, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal (2012).