Performance Evaluation of Active and Non-active Electrodes for Doxorubicin Electro-oxidation


Electrochemical remediation is an innovative technique that utilizes electro-oxidation reactions to degrade micropollutants such as doxorubicin (DOX) that is a drug widely used to treat many types of cancer,  and it is present in hospital effluents. The aim   of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of active and non-active electrodes in DOX degradation during electrochemical treatments. AuO-TiO2@graphite, a nanostructured electrode, and BDD, a commercial electrode, were used as active and non-active electrodes respectively. DOX treatments were realized at concentration of 1.25 mmol L-1 in medium with 10 mmol L-1 NaCl as support electrolyte. Studies were realized in 5 V of voltage source. Results: The treatment of DOX with BDD promoted 100% of DOX degradation in 20 min, while the same result was obtained for the AuO-TiO2@graphite in 40 min of treatment. Also, the modified electrode presented an energy expenditure of 1.12 kWh m-3 and the BDD achieved 0.462 kWh m-3. Thus, the active and non-active electrodes were efficient to promote DOX degradation, and the BDD, the non-active electrode demonstrated a better performance.

Keywords: Eletro-Oxidadion, Modified Graphite Anodes, BDD, Doxorubicin, Micropollutants

[1] Sirés, I. and Brillas, E. (2012). Remediation of water pollution caused by pharmaceutical residues based on electrochemical separation and degradation technologies: A review. Environ Internat, vol. 40, pp. 212–229.

[2] Panizza, M. and Martinez-Huitle, C.A. (2013). Role of electrode materials for the anodic oxidation of a real landfill leachate – Comparison between Ti–Ru–Sn ternary oxide, PbO2 and boron-doped diamond anode. Chemosphere, vol 90, issue 4, pp. 1455–1460.

[3] Moreira, F.C., Boaventura, R.A.R., Brillas, E. et al. (2017). Applied Catalysis B Environmental Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes A review on their application to synthetic and real wastewaters. Applied Catalysis B, Environmental, vol. 202, pp. 217–261.

[4] Panizza, M.E. and Cerisola, G. (2009). Direct and mediated anodic oxidation of organic pollutants”. Chemical Reviews, vol. 109, pp. 6541–69.

[5] Palchik, V., Traverso, M. L., Colautti, M. et al. (2016). Oncology medications prescription in a cancer service: appropriateness to clinical practice guidelines. Farmacia Hospitalaria, vol 40, issue 6, pp. 491-495.

[6] Mahnik, S.N.; Lenz, K.; Weissenbacher, N., et al (2007). Fate of 5- fluorouracil, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and daunorubicin in hospital wastewater and their elimi- nation by activated sludge and treatment in a membrane-bio-reactor system. Chemosphere, vol. 66, pp. 30–7.

[7] Marselli, B., Garcia-Gomez, J., Michaud, P. A., et al (2003). Electrogeneration of hydroxyl radicals on boron-doped diamond electrodes”. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol 150, issue 3, pp. 150, 79–83.

[8] Farinos, R.M. and Ruotolo, L.A.M. (2017). Comparison of the electrooxidation performance of threedimensional RVC/PbO2 and boron-doped diamond electrodes. Electrochimica Acta, vol. 224, pp. 32–39.

[9] Ganiyu, S.O., Oturan, N., Raffy, S., et al (2016). Sub-stoichiometric titanium oxide (Ti4O7) as a suitable ceramic anode for electrooxidation of organic pollutants: A case study of kinetics, mineralization and toxicity assessment of amoxicillin. Water Research, vol 1, issue 6, pp.171-172.

[10] Montilla, F., Morallo, E., De Battisti, A. et al (2004). Preparation and characterization of antimony-doped tin dioxide electrodes. Part 2. XRD and EXAFS characterization. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, pp. 5044-5050.

[11] Cherevkoa, S., Geiger, S., Kasiana, O., et al (2015). Oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions on Ru, RuO2, Ir, and IrO2 thin film electrodes in acidic and alkaline electrolytes: A comparative study on activity and stability. Catalysis Today, vol. 262, pp. 170-180.

[12] Särkkä, H., Vepsäläinen, M. and Sillanpää, M. (2015). Natural organic matter (NOM) removal by electro- chemical methods – A review. Journal of electroanalytical chemistry, vol. 755, pp. 100–108.

[13] Dunnill, C.W., Kafizas, A., and Parkin, I.P. (2012). CVD Production of Doped Titanium Dioxide Thin Films”. Chemical Vapor Deposition, vol. 18, pp. 89-101.

[14] Moreno, E.K.G., Garcia, L.F., Lobón, G.S. et al (2019). Ecotoxicological assessment and electrochemical remediation of doxorubicin”. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 179, pp. 143–150.

[15] Sanz-Lobón, G., Yepez, A., Garcia, L.F., et al (2017). Efficient electrochemical remediation of microcystin- LR in tap water using de- signer TiO2@carbon electrodes. Sci Rep Vol. 7, pp. 41326.

[16] Garcia, L.F., Moreno, E.K.G., Brito, L.B., et al. Electro-chemical doxorubicin removal on boron doped diamond: and effective technology to abate ecotoxicity. (In preparation).

[17] Mohora, E., Roncevic, S., Dalmacija, B., et al (2012). Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor. J. Hazard. Mater, vol. 235–236, pp. 257–264.

[18] Salazar, C., Contreras, N., Mansilla, H.D., et al (2016). Electrochemical degradation of the antihypertensive losartan in aqueous medium by electro-oxidation with boron-doped diamond electrode. J Hazard Mater, vol. 319, pp. 84-92.

[19] Kadu, B.S., Wani, K.D., Kaul-Ghanekar, R., et al (2017). Degradation of doxorubicin to non-toxic metabolites using Fe-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles. Chem Eng J, vol. 325, pp. 715–724.

[20] Ganzenko, O., Oturan, N., Sirés, I. et al. (2018). Fast and complete removal of the 5-fluorouracil drug from water by electro-Fenton oxidation. Environmental Chemistry Letters, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 1–6.

[21] Fabiańska, A., Ofiarska, A., Fiszka-Borzyszkowska, A. et al. (2015). Electrodegradation of ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide at BDD electrode: Decomposition pathway and its kinetics. Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 276, pp. 274–282.

[22] Siedlecka, E.M., Ofiarska, A., Borzyszkowska, A.F., et al (2018). Cytostatic drug removal using electrochemical oxidation with BDD electrode: Degradation pathway and toxicity. Water Research, vol. 144, pp. 235- 245.