Microstructure Features of Ternary Alkali-activated Binder Based on Tungsten Mining Waste, Slag and Metakaolin


This study determines the effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and metakaolin (MK) on the microstructural properties of the tungsten mining waste-based alkali-activated binder (TMWM). During this investigation, TMWM was partially replaced with 10 wt.% GGBFS and 10 wt.% MK to improve the microstructure of the binder. In order to understand the effect of the substitutions on the microstructure, two pastes were produced to make a comparative study between the sample contain 100% TMWM and the ternary precursors. Both precursors were activated using a combination of alkaline activator solutions (sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide) with the ratio of 1:3 (66.6 wt.% sodium silicate combined with 33.33 wt.% of NaOH 8M). The alkali-activated mixes were cured in oven at temperature of 60 °C in the first day and at room temperature for the next 27 days. The reaction products N-A-S-H gel and (N,M)-A-S-H gel resulted from the alkaline activation reaction process. In addition, a formation of natrite (Na2CO3) with needles shape occurred as a reaction product of the fluorescence phenomena. However, a dense matrix resulted from the alkline activation of the ternary precursors containg different gels such as N-A-S-H, C-A-S-H and (N,M)-C-A-S-H gel, these results were obtained through SEM-EDS analyses, as well FTIR tests.

Keywords: Mining Waste, Alkali-activated, Microstructure, Slag, Metakaolin

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