Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Oxide Heterogeneous Catalyst Derived from Anadara Granosa Shell for Biodiesel Synthesis


The aims of this study were to prepare and characterize environment-friendly calcium oxide (CaO) heterogeneous catalysts from blood cockle (Anadara granosa) shells and utilize for the synthesis of biodiesel. In this study, biodiesel was produced by transesterification reaction of waste frying oil with methanol using the CaO catalyst.  The catalysts were prepared by crushing and calcining of Anadara granosa shells at 800 oC and 900 ºC for 10 hours. The resulting CaO catalyst were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray flourescense spectrometry (XRF), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD patterns of calcined catalyst showed intense peaks of calcium oxide (2θ = 32.24o, 37.38o and 64.16o), and it was consistent with XRF results (>99% of CaO found) that revealed calcium was the major element present in the Anadara granosa shells. The maximum yield of biodiesel produced was 82.25% under reaction conditions of catalyst loading of 3 wt.%, methanol to oil ratio of 15:1, reaction time of 3 h, temperature of 60 oC  and using a catalyst calcined at 900 oC. 

[1] F. Ma and M. A. Hanna, Biodiesel production: a review, Bioresour Technol, 70, 1–15, (1999).

[2] A. Macarioa, G. Giordanoa, B. Onidab, D. Cocinab, A. Tagarelli, and A. M. Giuffrèd, Biodiesel production process by homogeneous/heterogeneous catalytic system using an acid–base catalyst, Appl Catal A Gen, 378, 160–168, (2010).

[3] Y. Y. Margaretha, H. S. Prastyo, A. Ayucitra, and S. Ismadji, Calcium oxide from Pomacea sp. Shell as a catalyst for biodiesel production, Intern J. En. Environ Eng., 3, 33–41, (2012).

[4] C. Samart, C. Chaiya, and P. Reubroycharoen, Biodiesel production by methanolisis of soybean oil using calcium supported on mesoporous silica catalyst, Energy Convers Manage, 51, 1428–1431, (2010).

[5] M. Kouzu, S. Yamanaka, J. Hidaka, and M. Tsunomori, Heterogeneous catalysis of calcium oxide used for transesterification of soybean oil with refluxing methanol, Appl Catal A Gen, 355, 94–99, (2009).

[6] N. Viriya-Empikul, P. Krasae, B. Puttasawat, B. Yoosuk, N. Chollacoop, and K. Faungnawakij, Waste shells of mollusk and egg as biodiesel production catalysts, Bioresour Technol, 101, 3765–3767, (2010).

[7] A. Birla, B. Singh, S. N. Upadhyay, and Y. C. Sharma, Kinetics studies of synthesis of biodiesel from waste frying oil using a heterogeneous catalyst derived from snail shell, Bioresour Technol, 106, 95–100, (2012).

[8] M. Nurhayati and W. Utami, in Mollusk Shell Waste of Anadara Granosa as a Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Production of Biodiesel, 36–39, Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kimia UGM Yokyakarta, W., 2013.

[9] N. Nakatani, H. Takamori, K. Takeda, and H. Sakugawa, Transesterification of soybean oil using combusted oyster shell waste as a catalyst, Bioresour Technol, 100, 1510–1513, (2009).