KnE Engineering | Postmodern Urban and Regional Planning in Iraq | pages: 149–166

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1. Introduction

The "New Urbanism "is the most important phenomenon in planning and architecture since the movement 0f modernity, a movement that encourages ideas that challenge long practices and prioritize the importance 0f an integrated approach to correct the problems 0f urban growth and changes in public policies, urban structure and land uses in cities. In recent years, and since the year 1960 and during the year 1980, the adoption 0f new urbanism principles and the work 0f planners, architects and designers and academics to gather ideas for new developments, and the increase in the use 0f private cars, and the lack 0f diversity in the communities and in the decades that followed world war II. The resulting philosophy, the new urbanism, has become the most influential in the last period 0f the twentieth century. The Basic question is what the principles 0f the new urbanism could be applied in the land use 0f urban areas and how can these principles used for designs and urban planning. In this regard, the study 0f the new urbanism principles those have been widely used around the world and have been a dramatic success seems to be an imperative. The investigation 0f different types 0f land use in urban areas, the proportion 0f each the land use to the other and the relationship with each other are among the case that is effective in designing and using the physical optimum 0f the land. The study 0f each land use in order to achieve appropriate measures and principles 0f urban planning are one 0f the most important actions [1]. The study principle 0f the new urbanism, which has widely used around world and has been very successful, is an imperative [2].

The distributions, selection 0f space, determination 0f land use and smooth access to it are unfavorable in the city 0f Al-Karkh. There are no suitable spaces for the activities 0f humans in the city 0f Al-Karkh from a new urban perspective.

The cooperation 0f the population in assigning the important spaces compatible with their culture is weak. Even this case is not considered in per capita land use for the provision 0f an appropriate and compatible environment; attention is also paid to human and to man-oriented spaces in urban development plans, and their distribution is unconsidered.

The new urbanism, well known for the design 0f traditional and traditional new areas, is defined as a set 0f planning principles that give habitable areas and corridors in a pedestrian-friendly environment. The new urbanism is a reaction to the urban proliferation. [3]. It is such an effective way against car-dependent communities where every trip is made by cars [4]. Thus this theory can be exploited to define problems to provide solutions in order to revive the city, to rebuild the suburbs, to protect the natural environment and to enhance the quality 0f life and its standards. Moreover, this view leads to the prevention 0f growth and unauthorized construction and excessive city, increased supply 0f lateral and main streets in central parts 0f the city, the provision 0f a garage to reduce traffic, control 0f legality and raise people's awareness 0f cooperation, regulation and orientation and provide safety, comfort and well-being for residents 0f Al-Karkh.

Al-Karkh has faced many challenges in the field 0f the transportation network and urban construction. One 0f the very important issues 0f urban life is the way how land is used. Control 0f land division is the very effective way to implement the principles 0f planning and division 0f cities into residential, industrial, commercial and administrative areas and to implement urban land use rules. The assessment 0f the division and use 0f lands can reflect a clear and good picture 0f the urban view and the distribution 0f urban space over time to different uses in the city in order to achieve goals 0f urban development. Global experience generally shows that the success in land use planning in the urban areas depends on cooperation and also the balance between two sets 0f factors: (a) existence 0f appropriate policies and rules in land use; (b) use 0f effective methods in the provision and implementation 0f urban designs and the use schedule Land [5]. Therefore, for the planning and assessment 0f urban land use in urban areas, the adequacy 0f rules and regulations and the use 0f effective methods are a critical point in the evaluation and planning 0f land use in urban areas [6]. Despite a new urban movement within the framework 0f housing development, it has always stressed the development and reform 0f internal structures. They object to the excessive spread 0f the city and thus waste the land [7].

In this paper, the following questions addressed: Is the level and individual attributable to Al-Karkh land uses with the theory 0f new urbanism, and they are the new urbanism principles studied in the studied area?, Is the correlation between land use and orientation 0f humans in the spatial distribution 0f land uses in the city 0f Al-Karkh?, Are people satisfied with the access to land use required in Al-Karkh and the location?, Do you look at the new urbanism principles and take them into account effectively to satisfy the population by using land distribution?

2. The main concepts 0f research and theoretical literature

CONCEPT

The City

The city is an urban system in a hierarchical order, to gather people, form components, have physical, or symbolic, features to isolate the population from strangers, provide specialization in work, and diversity in capital. Cities are based on administrative and service environments. The cities and cities are also characterized by some 0f the characteristics 0f the architectural structure through the presence 0f public buildings, and thus it is a place composed 0f a group 0f people and environments, and the city body and its real function, and the ideas and values that connect people, is one phenomenon.

The City as an Urban Environment The city is an integrated system driven by several secondary systems that are interrelated with each other, resulting in the final form 0f the city. 1. Structural system. 2. The transportation system includes transportation and communication. 3. Information system. Which contributes to the reduction 0f time and distance, which changes the way 0f understanding and understanding 0f the urban environment? 4. Cognitive systems: Cognitive value systems, which mean the accepted customs and traditions and the religious beliefs 0f each urban society within cities. 6 - System 0f decision: Represented by the body with administrative and legislative authority to take various decisions related to the planning and design 0f urban cities. 6 - Production system: The nature 0f specialization in the division 0f production in the urban society 0f the city between trade and industry and others. [13]

New urbanism theory

It is an international movement that began as a reaction to passive investment in city centers, the spread 0f unplanned spaces, the distinction between the human race, the erosion 0f the heritage structures 0f society and the adoption 0f the new urban constitution by designers and planners all over the world. It's Movement to reform and regulate the design 0f the urban environment that arises from the characteristic 0f life, the standard 0f living, about The way to create the best places to live, and work mainly on the reorganization 0f the built environment, in the form 0f Harmonious cities, towns, villages, and residential neighborhoods in the same way that communities were built, for several Centuries in multiple regions 0f the world. [8] The new Urbanism Movement aims to recreate the idea 0f traditional neighborhood design. The intention 0f this theory was to create a sense 0f society and to restore the lost sense 0f place because 0f the use 0f one's current Euclidean land development practices. we can see that the concepts presented by the new urbanism theory, for example, high density, narrow street, growing growth, mixed land use, strong connection to the streets, compact, pedestrian-oriented design, these concepts are important because they encourage the development 0f a sense 0f community and provide flexibility and affordability costs, which are needed for the low-income group in the absence 0f capital investments and resources.

Urban land uses

Land use is one 0f the key areas used for action to improve performance in global sustainable development. The Land allows a variety 0f uses and can meet a variety 0f goals. The land uses is an essential element in the human activity much 0f what we humans require land. [9] Thus, the concept 0f land uses refers to a series 0f the activities that are performed to service or generate a product or more. Can use the same land uses on different pieces 0f land, likewise, it may be the same land several uses. And it provides the activity-based definition 0f land use, a detailed quantitative analysis 0f the environmental and economic impacts, and also empowerment 0f discrimination clearly different land uses. [10]

land use Planning

Land use planning is process which the society decides on various economic and social activities, such as agriculture, housing, industry, leisure and trade. This includes protection well-defined areas 0f development because 0f Environmental, cultural, historical, or similar reasons, and the development 0f the provisions that govern the nature 0f the Developmental activities.

the planning of land use is "systematic assessment 0f land and water potential, alternative patterns 0f land use and other physical, social and economic conditions" for the purpose 0f adopting land and selecting which is the most useful for the land uses without degradation 0f resources 0r the environment, use options, along the choice 0f measures most likely to be encouraged such the land uses” [11] must be" a decision process that facilitates allocation 0f land to the uses that provide the greatest sustainable benefits and to promote the transition to a sustainable and integrated management 0f land resources". [12]

Theoretical and literature

Land use has been put into planning for the first time in America and Europe with an advent 0f new urbanization. Initial actions were mostly engineering, legal and administrative. However, since a beginning 0f 1960, use 0f urban land in a specific way 0f land-use planning has been taken seriously on the basis 0f objective and systematic concepts, rules and methods. The view that the use 0f urban land doesn't include only administrative,and material issue, but also has environmental economic, cultural and social dimensions. It has been gradually promoted in the western cities. The perspective 0f the land regulation is secure in order to provide government sovereignty and establish property rights. In the United States 0f America, the first division law 0f land was passed in 1885 and initial zoning regulations were implemented in 1922. In the 1980's, a large number 0f American architects and urban planners were dissatisfied with erosion, the urban center's deterioration and the increase 0f dispersed and scattered communities, dependent on cars and also far from urban centers. In the last decade 0f 1980 and also the beginning 0f 1990, this discontent led to the movement 0f new urbanism [14]. The use 0f such a new word and its combination with the term "urbanism" refers to concepts such as energy, freshness, and vitality. This position (presented by planners and urban architects in early 1980) attempted to address the problems 0f urbanization and rural development after World War II. Rapid urbanization, population growth and migration all lead to overcrowding and hence overcrowding Urban traffic causing land consumption and low vegetation as well Proliferation and urban expansion, which leads to the expansion 0f infrastructure, and therefore difficult to maintain, because it is not Grouped in specific places, research finds that the solution is in high structural density, and follow City Compact, urban design, service aggregation, and usage (Mixed Use 0f land), to control infrastructure services, and to create a public transport system as one Sustainable urban mechanisms focusing on characteristics that formed the basis 0f building neighborhood units which known as traditional physical characteristics, the new urban aims to make use from Traditional urbanization to address the current urban and regional concerns [15]. Researchers have been conducted in the area 0f land use planning and urban management, accompanied by increased urbanization and the resulting problems. The city is the place which drives citizens to maximum satisfaction and efficiency in the minimum time, replacement and cost. Thus, the organization 0f effective place with good shape provides citizens satisfaction. According to research conducted by the BES Institute on more than 1,000 public places in different countries 0f the world, the researchers found that the factor 0f accessibility is one 0f the most important cases in measuring the quality 0f public spaces and urban land use [16]. In this article, the land use site was analyzed according to the distributed criteria based on need and new urbanism features and principles can be applied in small and large enterprises. The Table (1) shows the benefits and the principles also for the residents concerning new urbanism

Table 1

the Principles 0f New Urbanism Theory. Source: [18].

The Principle The Description
Walkability Places should be within a 10-minute walk from work or home and, Streets should be free from cars.
Connectivity Interconnected street grid network. A hierarchy 0f narrow streets, boulevards and alleys are necessary and a high quality pedestrian network.
Mixed uses and diversity A mix 0f different sectors including retail and residential.
Mixed houses A range 0f types, sizes and prices in closer proximity.
Quality architecture and urban design The emphasis is on beauty, human comfort, creating sense 0f place. The Human scale beautiful and architecture surrounded nourish 0f the human spirit.
The Traditional neighborhood structure Public space at the center, Discernible edge and Centre. Transect planning and highest densities at the Centre of town.
Increased density Denser services, buildings, shops and residences, closer together for the ease 0f walking. This can enables the more efficient use 0f resources and services.
Smart transport A network 0f high-quality trains connect towns, cities, and neighborhoods together. Pedestrian- designs that encourage a greater use 0f bicycles, walking a rollerblades as daily transport.
Sustainability Development should have a less impact to the environment.
The Quality 0f life Improving the urban environment to raise the living standards of its residents.

Series 0f laws and conventions that regulate from the master plan 0f the architectural distribution, types 0f buildings and street were added for the above mentioned principles. [19] There are five documents (The Landscape, The Regulating Plan, the Architectural Regulations, the Urban Regulations and the Street Types Regulations). The above mentioned ten principles must be implementing to form the core 0f the new urban planning system, code and regulation on following three levels: We

  • Metropolis, city and town.

  • Neighborhood, district and the corridor.

  • Street, block and building.

The new urbanism has, a very special emphasis on community feeling with a very strong social orientation. The new urbanites make a simple assumption 0f the social nature 0f man. It is assumed that the man has this idea is inspired, and a basic social need by American psychologist A. Maslow how put the social needs 0f human beings between the five of the most important needs.

Urban forms 0f urbanization has a new goal as the main re-discovery 0f the meaning 0f society, which is characterized in their cities before manufacturing. In this sense, emphasize the role 0f urban design in people's behavior.

3. Methodology 0f research

The methodology was based on the analytical descriptive approach and the survey methodology because 0f the nature 0f the work. The main thrust 0f the research applied the collection 0f theoretical bases and research recommendations through the library and documentation resources. The statistical community 0f this research involves the citizens 0f (The area 0f study (which was estimated the population 0f the study area in the old Karkh area, which included (218, 216,214, 212, 210) in the city 0f Baghdad about (18440) people now). The Sample size was (922). Sampling method in this study was a simple random sample. The figure (1) shows the location of the study area within the city of Baghdad.

fig-1.jpg
Figure 1
The location of the study area within the city of Baghdad. Source: Baghdad Municipality / Design Department.

4. Analysis of data

According to Fig (2), among the total sample, 57.0 (6.2%) 0f them were "20" years old or less, 676.0(73.3%) 0f them were between "21-40" years, 178.0(19.3%) 0f them were between "41-60" years and 11.0(1.2%) were older than" 61" years old, as a result, most 0f the participants were between " 21-40" years 0ld and among all, 53.93% 0f them were males and 46.07% were females. Fig (3)

fig-2.jpg
Figure 2
Age distribution of participants Source: The researcher depends on the field study.
fig-3.jpg
Figure 3
Sex distribution 0f participants Source: The researcher depends on the field study.

Oriented pedestrian on the development 0f walking and cycling paths, especially within the region was emphasized, which is a very special significance in the historic fabric 0f the region. In fact, strengthening the orientation 0f the pedestrian is the chief principle 0f the new urbanism, which is emphasized in the cities by making internal pathways that provide climate comfort for pedestrians. Another feature is to identify the most uses in walking distance 0f accessible and close to workplace and home. We can deal with this principle by setting active area centers and to identify a suitable place for the required uses so Fig (4) shows urban streets.

fig-4.jpg
Figure 4
Urban streets Source: Baghdad Municipality / Design Department.

Communication can be achieved by identifying centers at the intersection 0f major multiple side roads, integrating the squares with the active ingredients such as bazaar, centers 0f areas and mosques, and a close relationship 0f the mosque with the other components 0f the city center and make a harmonious blend between communities and cities in the city, the city center spatially and physically, Fig(5a) shows Commercial, industrial and religious activities

  • Mix use Fig (5b) & (6) and Table (II).

fig-5.jpg
Figure 5
(a) Commercial, industrial and religious activities Source: Baghdad Municipality / Design Department. (b) land uses Source: Baghdad Municipality / Design Department.
fig-6.jpg
Figure 6
Land uses areas Source: Baghdad Municipality / Design Department.
Table 2

Land use areas and percentages 0f occupancy for the study area. Source: Baghdad Municipality / Design Department.

fig-7.jpg

With regard to the analysis 0f the questionnaire data on the new urbanism principles was concluded that index satisfaction among the population of the studied area by putting in mind these principles. The communication was one 0f the principles. According to opinion 0f respondents, customer satisfaction index is at a middle level. The communication is effective in integrating activities clearly, so there must be homogeneity and connected between urban elements such as streets, external spaces, and sidewalks but people are dissatisfied with the linkage 0f the elements in an area surveyed. Another principle 0f the new urbanism was the mixed use and public spaces and the promotion 0f green and preservation is another form 0f new urbanism too. Green spaces positively reduce pollution and affect mental health in the city, and therefore should increase the area 0f green space. There have been no initiatives to promote and expand the use 0f green space in the city. The population 0f the study area were not really satisfied with the green area per capita and access to these types' 0f areas and with concern to the population density, so these areas were not provided. Public transport was also another challenge in the area. In this city public transport was not at the desired level, quantity, and responsible organizations didn't have neither a specific planning nor goal to improve the state 0f transport. Residential uses are in a condition which considered poor because 0f the existing homes did not correspond to the city population. People, specifically those with low incomes, cannot afford to pay for housing and their satisfaction was very low. The health in this city was not at the favorable situation because this usage is not distributed to the city and also citizens couldn't have access to this use. In the terms 0f spatial distribution 0f uses, human-oriented space should have the capacity to increase citizen ownership 0f the environment and to stimulate a good climate. In this way, peace is found and spiritual and social cooperation among citizen's increases. But in this city, the needs 0f people are not even considered and people don't have access for uses easily. They had to hike sometimes, so at the end, they were not satisfied.

To limit the dissatisfaction and satisfaction 0f urban environmental conditions, variables by respondents were chosen and the following "satisfaction index" which was developed by Hall, Yen. [18] was selected in this study.

Is=(fsfd)N

Were,

Is: The satisfaction index.

fs: The number 0f respondents satisfied.

fd: The number 0f respondents dissatisfied.

N: The total number 0f the respondents.

Regarding this satisfaction index, it is = +1, which means the highest level 0f satisfaction is = -1, meaning higher Level 0f dissatisfaction.

Table 3

Satisfaction index 0f THE DIFFERENT variables uses in alKarkh city. Source: The researcher depends on the field study.

Is N Groups Variables
fd fa fs
-1 922 922 0 0 Designing the passages network in which provides accessibility easily to the uses
-0.64 922 675 162 85 population's satisfaction with the way 0f access the uses
-0.91 922 876 9 37 Easy accessibility to districts and urban regions
-0.92 922 857 56 9 Easy accessibility to the uses
-0.9 922 867 18 37 Suitable accessibility to the urban uses
-0.89 922 845 53 24 Satisfaction with locating the uses
-0.79 922 785 80 57 The Suitability 0f access distance to uses in an urban regions
-0.78 922 801 39 82 The Suitability 0f use 0f business in terms 0f accessibility and distribution over the city
-0.56 922 678 82 162 The Satisfaction with access to uses in AlKarkh
fa: The number 0f acceptable respondents

With regard t0 the data in Table (III) in 0rder to 0btain the satisfaction index between the population 0f the study area, we subtracts a number 0f individuals was satisfied with the number 0f non-eligible individuals divided into the total number 0f respond. Using this formula, with regard to the issue, which obtain a number 0f this indicator for negative questionnaire questions, we can conclude that the level 0f satisfaction 0f the population 0f the study area with land use is very low and participants are not entirely satisfied with access to uses in the study area shows that with respect to a set 0f satisfaction indicators (-1 to +1) and negative indexes obtained in this study,.

5. Discussion and the conclusion

It was concluded from the data obtained from maps 0f GIS and questionnaires, that the comprehensive plan 0f the study area faced problems and 0bstacles that included, use 0f deleted parking spaces and side corridors in the city, low supply 0f main and unauthorized construction. Comparison between the current uses and the recommended level 0f approved uses indicates that many uses still not reaching the recommended level. This indicates that there was no the correct prediction 0f population, needs, and facilities; consultants have begun planning unknowingly and knowing the region based on the dispersed information and erroneous. After years, we are still far from intellectual planning.

The results 0f research showed that the more careful attention for human beings and their consideration in the context 0f urban planning and use should be among the priorities 0f the new urbanism. The new civilization is trying to create the conditions in which a person can live with higher quality and peacefully. In this regard, the population should provide transportation, should have access to walking and housing, should feel the reduction 0f accidents and risk, traffic costs, the city must be effective enough in improving public health. Providing the environment that urban populations can be the more effective is one 0f the most basic purposes 0f the new urbanism. Thus we can realize that the principles new urbanism in the city accompanied the satisfaction 0f population. If the distribution is based on the principles 0f new urbanism in the city 0f Karkh, the quality will certainly improve and change the urban environment. The major 0f spatial problems in a region stems from the lack 0f consideration 0f local principle and measures in the identification 0f land uses and absence 0f an integrated land-use system, and. It seems that attention to lack, constraints, and problems on the spatial structure 0f the area are essential in any planning. in Al Karkh, The land uses did not have an individual share. Therefore, the results 0f the research concluded that the incompatibility between the use 0f spaces, green, education, health and housing causes dissatisfaction among the people 0f AlKarkh city, Moreover, the planning between the uses must be more considered in order to balance uses and rebuild a city. The lack 0f mass-use communications in many parts 0f the city has caused some problems among citizens. We can conclude that the factor 0f accessibility is very important to measuring qualitative compliance with the use 0f urban land and the state 0f public space. The results 0f the research indicated also that the quality 0f the environment urban areas includes the economic, social, cultural, temporal conditions and spatial 0f urban conditions that determine the level 0f dissatisfaction and satisfaction to people. Increased material quality and appropriate capabilities are very effective in satisfy the people living in an urban area.

The good shape 0f the city is the model in which the basic 0f variables provide the highest satisfaction and efficiency with minimum replacement, time, and cost. So the organization with good shape and effective places provided good satisfaction to people. According to this research, land uses must distribute in the way that people do not have any difficulty in access those uses without wasting cost and time. In the other words, we cannot provide any favorable conditions in the cities without doing planning land use for people. This can do by assisting an expert and a specialist on all issues related to the city.

6. Recommendations

It has enabled us to identify the problems and constraints faced by the city by doing a detailed understanding, and then we made a meaningful plan in a long-term. It seems that with regard to the strategic location 0f the city, it requires viable plans like the urban strategic development plans. So we considered the following recommendations:

  • The lack 0f existing consultants in cities is the one 0f the most serious problems, so providing the local office by a project consultant and by direct relationship between local office staff with local organizations and city administration, as well as the continuous relationship with the people necessary to reform preparation 0f the comprehensive plans.

  • The green area must be increased in the studied area.

  • Prevent concentration in cities centers, thereby reducing the traffic in heart 0f cities.

  • Because 0f the high population densities during the day, the parking spaces must set up in cities center and some forecasts must be considered in the future plans for the use 0f the land under consideration for the gradual transfer 0f unnecessary places outside the city. Naked buildings on the ground should be banned at the level 0f high groundwater.

  • The roles 0f urban linkages and connectivity in centers 0f areas must be considered through the main streets or corridors. The network 0f existing corridors and the expansion 0f narrow corridors should be modified.

  • With regard to the physical, social, cultural, and economic situation 0f the region, as well as the dispersion and distribution 0f population, location 0f uses and activities, the physical divisions, in cities and the rehabilitation 0f its borders must be revised.

  • Consensus should consider in the studies on be understanding the current situation and fieldwork 0f the land uses. Relevant information must apply to the development 0f the future 0f land-use plans and the kinds 0f recommended use 0f city that it isn't normally considered in the urban plan for the country; therefore, it is necessary to make the balance for the uses and to remove the imbalance.

  • The city area must be considered as the hub for public services in the region, and through the construction 0f a ground building with a different kind 0f function between floors and the public demand 0f the population, and the provision 0f free space. Important uses must separate to reduce the risks 0f large-scale fires. The sidewalks should be separated from the green road vehicles also.

  • Public and private transport areas should be allocated to accelerate public transport and speed.

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