KnE Engineering | Postmodern Urban and Regional Planning in Iraq | pages: 30–44

and
and

1. Introduction

The concept of place energy is one of historical concepts of active regenerating over time, several contemporary studies have emerged to activate its role in dealing with place, but all these studies have dealt with the place internally only and didn't take into account the outer part of place, because of t he importance of this concept in our urban life this research has activated the concept of place energy at the urban level to go beyond the narrow frame that was developed for it, where the place has great importance in creating human interaction within society, especially its urban part.

Research problem

There is no clear perception of the dramatic situation of the urban scene of Shatt al-Arab.

Research hypothesis

The construction of the dramatic situation of the urban scene of Shatt al-Arab is based on activating the concept of place energy.

Research goal

Constructing the dramatic situation of the urban scene of Shatt al-Arab by activating the concept of place energy using the possibility of river transport.

fig-1.jpg
Figure 1
The Research methodology Prepared by the researcher.

2. PLACE

Is a specific courtyard with the spirit of the place and since ancient times the place was embodiment of the truth.

Architecture means the perception of the spirit of the place and the task of the planner is to create space that helps the person to live. [1]

PLACE THEORY AND PLACE ENERGY

The theory is that place is a place defined by latent energy that can become a correlative and aggregative component of objects and is a place if given a contextual meaning derived from the cultural content of society. [2]

Man, by its very nature, needs a stable system in the places where he connects himself and tends to belong to it and to grow in it. These needs give the designed place a morally and emotionally content and symbolic presence that transcends the physical existence. [3]

What urban planning requires is not only to look at the local historical content of the place, but also to look at what it wants to be for the human need, this means searching for its latent energy as (Lewis Khan) points out. [1]

The concept of place energy addresses the relationship between man and place and begins with the fact that the place has special power and charm, every place of privacy, strength, charm, aesthetic secrets and physical characteristics so it's necessary to sense the privacy of the place and keen to maintain the balance in the relationship between the elements of the same place with the aim of rearranging it to fit the necessary needs of humans. [4]

Peter Smith states that no one can pretend that the value of a place is produced only by the master plan, but an important part of the presence of space is the sense that we own place has its own latent energy. [5]

RIVER AND RIVER TRANSPORT

Rivers are an important natural urban resource within the world's major cities, on whose banks one of the most important urban environments has emerged, and with the size of the city and the increase in its urban area along the banks of the river, With successive periods of development that differ from each other and are influenced by certain factors, in addition to the natural factors of the river environment in terms of its abundance and natural life around it. These characteristics determine the general characteristics of urbanization. You are the most privileged areas, The different methodologies for the development and rise of river banks in the cities of the world depending on the conditions and possibilities available in terms of location and river view and also in terms of the history of the city and the urban and cultural heritage of the city... etc, and also differed comprehensive vision to analyze the efficiency of the physical environment of the banks of the river and its duration or The general elements of the assessment can be called along the banks of the river, through which decisions are taken to prioritize the intervention in the re-development of the various areas along the river banks within the urban bloc of the city or region. [6]

The infrastructure was taken into account, as a good road network began to appear along the river's streams and linking the river's banks with a good transport and public transport network. An important element affecting the re-development process is also the direct link or material permeability between the user of the place and river water, as well as visual permeability through all aspects of the river and through the river crossings above it. [7]

3. URBAN SCENE DRAMA

Urban scene, which is one of the orientations of urban design, works to create spatial relations between the characteristics of vocabulary components of the urban environment and organization of a structural framework to the dramatic vision of the components of the urban form. [8]

Cullen classifies the vocabulary of the urban scene into three basic elements that branch out secondary elements that work together to reach the dramatic relationship of the urban scene.Cullen emphasizes the importance of the ground as the unified element and the dramatic link of the vocabulary of the urban scene to it direct psychological effects on the receiver when the vision of the movement during the urban environment. [9]

DRAMATIC STUATION

A dramatic situation is a situation, in a narrative or dramatic work, in which people (or "people") are involved in conflicts [10]

Abdulwahab defines it as the human intellectual crisis, is of a public nature towards the results of a set of competing data in the general concepts of intellectual and behavioral subject to probability, determinism and causality, with temporal horizon for the present, the past and the future in an intertwined and diminishing manner. [11]

PERCEPTION

There are three different types of perception: solid perception (normal human perception), liquid perception (where images flow together, such as in pre-War French cinema), and gaseous perception (the pure vision of the non-human eye). The latter is objective vision, the vision of matter, of the world before man. Dziga Vertov's images aspire to pure machine vision. Experimental cinema also reaches for this pure perception.[12]

fig-2.jpg
Figure 2
the perception requirements Prepared by the researcher.

4. ABSTRACT THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The process of building the final indicators of the research, which are indicators to be adopted to test the practical study by interviewing the vocabulary of the theoretical part with each other, the final indicators of the energy relationship interpretation of the place with the dramatic situation.

Table 1

Indicators derived from the theoretical part Prepared by the researcher.


The first indicator: The place is dedicated to drama, the place is a partner in building the elements of drama.
The second indicator: Sense of place is part of the spiritual place energy and the potentials of the place with the scene, personal participation and the convergence of perception, emotions and actions to give the dramatic situation.
The third indicator: River transport is the distinctive link between the user of the place and his perception of urban scene drama.
The forth indicator: Dramatic situation is realized through the dramatic action which means the movement performed in a certain place by the people.

5. PRACTICAL FRAMEWORK

This paragraph reviews the historical background of the city of Basra in general since its establishment and its inception until the present time, after that, it reviews the development of the urban scene of the Shatt al-Arab and its content from spatial elements and spatial energies and then tackles the application of the theoretical points of view on the urban scene to get clear picture of the reality of the situation and the proposed development projects in order to reach conclusions regarding the process of building the dramatic situation and how to benefit from river transport as an important part of the place energy in this process.

Basra historical background

is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran Basra is also Iraq's main port, although it does not have deep water access, which is handled at the port of Umm Qasr. The present city was founded in 636 as an encampment and garrison for Arab tribesmen constituting the armies of the Rashid Caliph Umar a few kilometres south of the present city.The Muslim commander Utbah ibn Ghazwan erected his camp on the site of an old Persian settlement called Vaheštābād Ardašīr, which was destroyed by the Arabs, after the Battle of Basra (1914) during World War I, the occupying British modernized the port (works designed by Sir George Buchanan); these British commercial interests made it one of the most important ports in the Persian Gulf "with shipping and trade links to the Far East. [13]

fig-3.jpg
Figure 3
The first plan for the emergence of Basra.
fig-4.jpg
Figure 4
Map of the city of Basra at the end of the eighteenth century illustrates the urban scene of Shatt al-Arab.
fig-5.jpg
Figure 5
Transport used in the last century.
fig-6.jpg
Figure 6
Shatt al Arab existing potentials\NB-COMSULTANCY.
fig-7.jpg
Figure 7
The dockyard of al Asha(existing)\ NB-COMSULTANCY.
fig-8.jpg
Figure 8
Historical presidential palaces(existing)\ NB-COMSULTANCY.
Table 2

Application of indicators to the reality of the situation \ Prepared by the researcher.


Indicators Percentage
The place is dedicated to drama, the place is a partner in building the elements of drama. 30%
Sense of place is part of the spiritual place energy and the potentials of the place with the scene, personal participation and the convergence of perception, emotions and actions to give the dramatic situation. 20%
River transport is the distinctive link between the user of the place and his perception of urban scene drama. 10%
Dramatic situation is realized through the dramatic action which means the movement performed in a certain place by the people. 40%
fig-9.jpg
Figure 9
al Basra master proposed master plan/ NB-COMSULTANCY.
fig-10.jpg
Figure 10
SHAT AL ARAB WATER FRONT PLANNING VISION\ NB-COMSULTANCY.
fig-11.jpg
Figure 11
The proposal of the dockyard of al Asha \ NB-COMSULTANCY.
Table 3

Application of indicators to the proposed master plan \ Prepared by the researcher.


Indicators Percentage
The place is dedicated to drama, the place is a partner in building the elements of drama. 40%
Sense of place is part of the spiritual place energy and the potentials of the place with the scene, personal participation and the convergence of perception, emotions and actions to give the dramatic situation. 30%
River transport is the distinctive link between the user of the place and his perception of urban scene drama. 10%
Dramatic situation is realized through the dramatic action which means the movement performed in a certain place by the people. 20%

The existing potentials (latent energies) of Shatt al- Arab

Shatt al- Arab is a river in Basra Governorate of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq. The southern end of the river constitutes the border between Iraq and Iran down to the mouth of the river as it discharges into the Persian Gulf. It varies in width from about 232 meters at Basra to 800 meters at its mouth. It is thought that the waterway formed relatively recently in geologic time, with the Tigris and Euphrates originally emptying into the Persian Gulf via a channel further to the west. [13]

The existing potentials for the urban scene of Shatt al-Arab as shown in (figure5) are:

  • The old airport of Basra.

  • The dockyard of al Ashar.

  • Historical presidential palaces.

  • Al Maqal port.

  • Muftiya refinery.

Through the plans and the application of indicators on the chosen area by applying them on the plans and by notifying the existing situation, we note that the area contains potentials and spatial energies due to the circumstances. These potentials are considered to be an important and distinctive place energies for the area if they are exploited in an optimal manner, we will discuss the development of the master plan and the riverfront to see if these potentials were exploited and utilized.

SHAT AL ARAB WATER FRONT PLANNING VISION

Through the plans and the application of indicators we note that the proposed plan for Shatt al- Arab river front has take advantage of existing spatial energies better.

6. CONCLUSION

  • The absence of the role of river transport as an important, effective and distinctive awareness of the urban scene of Shatt al- Arab in reality.

  • The neglect of the role of river transport in the proposed base plan and the lack of attention to this possibility, knowing that it is a characteristic potential and the most common means of transport in the region previously.

  • Lack of awareness of the importance of human interaction and the achievement of dramatic action within the region.

  • There is a neglect of the spiritual side, which is an important and vital aspect in the process of building the dramatic situation.

7. RECOMMONDATIONS

  • Adopting an approach to study and activate river transport in the Shatt al-Arab so that people can understand the urban scene of the Shatt al-Arab and thus create memories associated with the place for the purpose of building its own dramatic situation.

  • The need to connect the river front to the Shatt al-Arab and not to adopt designs that do not exist for the history of the region, because man interact with the place associated with his memories and history.

  • The creation of urban complexes to give the human opportunity to interact within and thus build a dramatic position of his own in the place.

References

1 

Rapaport, Amos; Human Aspects of urban form, pergamon press, U.K., 1977, reprint 1980

2 

Christian-Norberg. Schulz, C.; Intentions in Architecture, MIT Press Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge Massachusetts, 1963

3 

Gosling, D: Maitland, B; Concepts of urban design, St. Martins press, UK, 1984

4 

Nancilee Wydra, Feng Shui: The Book of Cures, P.2

5 

Lynch, Kevin; A theory of Good city form, The M.I.T. press Cambridge, 1981

6 

Marshal, Richard (2000), "Waterfront in post-industrial cities"

7 

Beauregard, Robert A. & Anne Hailo (2001)," Globalizing cities a new spatial order"

8 

Broadbent,G. & Bunt, R. & Liorens, T. ed; Meaning & Behaviour in the Built Environment, Jonn Wiley & Sons, Chichester,1980

9 

Cullen,Gordon,The Cocise Townscape,The architectural press, London,1973

10 

Scholes, Robert, and Klaus, carl H., Elements of drama, Oxford university press, London, 1971.

11 

Akram, Al-Akkam, the dramatic situation in the aesthetics of the contemporary interior space language, 1999, p.12

12 

Gilles, Deleuze, Cinema 1 The Movement-Image, 1984, p.80-81.

13 

NB-COMSULTANCY

FULL TEXT

Statistics

  • Downloads 18
  • Views 109

Navigation

Refbacks



ISSN: 2518-6841