Interactive multiplatform software to mitigate arachnophobia through augmented reality


Abstract: Augmented Reality (RA) is a technology that mixes physical reality with virtual elements, resulting in mixed reality in real time. He is currently widely accepted for his ease of adaptation in human activities. Superimposing data and digital information in a real environment for educational, commercial, social, therapeutic, industrial, among others. The objective of this research is to develop an interactive software to mitigate arachnophobia by using the engine and graphic editor of Unity Games, focusing on augmented reality. In this project the agile scrum methodology was used. Because it is based on incremental development. Enabling application requirements and development to be flexible for patients and developers. Obtained as a result of a sample of 16 people, that 93.19% improved equal or greater than 50% in their level of anxiety and fear according to their score obtained in the test FSQ after using the proposed application. While 6.81% obtained a percentage lower than 50% because the use of the application was carried out in times less than 20 minutes per day, causing no significant changes.

[1] Wrzesien, M., Alcañiz, M., Botella, C., Burkhardt, J. M., Bretón-López, J., Ortega, M., & Brotons, D. B. (2013). The therapeutic lamp: treating small-animal phobias. IEEE computer graphics and applications, 33(1), 80-86.

[2] Pallavicini, F., Cipresso, P., Raspelli, S., Grassi, A., Serino, S., Vigna, C., Triberti, S., Villamira, M., Gaggioli, A., and Riva, G. Is virtual reality always an e?ective stressors for exposure treatments? some insights from a controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry 13 (2013).

[3] Deacon BJ, Abramowitz JS: Cognitive and behavioral treatments for anxiety disorders: a review of meta-analytic findings. J Clin Psychol. 2004, 60 (4): 429-441. 10.1002/jclp.10255.

[4] Emmelkamp PM: Behavior therapy in adults. Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. Edited by: Lambert M. 2003, New York: Wiley, 393-446. 5

[5] Rothbaum BO, Schwartz AC: Exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychother. 2002, 56 (1): 59-75.

[6] Asukai N, Saito A, Tsuruta N, Kishimoto J, Nishikawa T: Efficacy of exposure therapy for Japanese patients with posttraumatic stress disorder due to mixed traumatic events: A randomized controlled study. J Trauma Stress. 2010, 23 (6): 744-750. 10.1002/jts.20589.

[7] Barlow JH, Ellard DR, Hainsworth JM, Jones FR, Fisher A: A review of self-management interventions for panic disorders, phobias and obsessivecompulsive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005, 111 (4): 272-285. 10.1111/j.1600- 0447.2005.00499.x.

[8] Craske M, Barlow D: Panic disorder and agoraphobia. Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual. Edited by: Barlow DH. 2007, New York: Guilford, 1-64. 4

[9] Landon TM, Barlow DH: Cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder: current status. J Psychiatr Pract. 2004, 10 (4): 211-226. 10.1097/00131746-200407000- 00002.}

[10] Olatunji BO, Cisler JM, Deacon BJ: Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: a review of meta-analytic findings. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2010, 33 (3): 557-577. 10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.002.

[11] Franklin M, Foa E: Obsessive compulsive disorder. Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual. Edited by: Barlow DH. 2007, New York: Gui ford, 164-215. 4

[12] Brinkman, W.-P., van der Mast, C., Sandino, G., Gunawan, L. T., and Emmelkamp, P. M. The therapist user interface of a virtual reality exposure therapy system in the treatment of fear of ?ying. Interacting with Computers 22, 4 (2010), 299–310.

[13] C. Botella et al., “Treating Cockroach Phobia with Augmented Reality,” Behavior Therapy,vol. 41, no. 3, 2010, pp. 401–413.

[14] I. Padayachee, P. Kotze & A. van Der Merwe. ISO 9126 external systems quality characteristics, sub-characteristics and domain specific criteria for evaluating eLearning systems. The Southern African Computer Lecturers’ Association, University of Pretoria, South Africa, 2010.

[15] Escobar-Sánchez, M. E., & Fuertes-Día, W. M. (2015). Modelo formal de pruebas funcionales de software para alcanzar el Nivel de Madurez Integrado 2. Facultad de Ingeniería, 24(39), 31-42.

[16] Inc. Qualcomm Connected Experiences. Vuforia developer. target manager, Junio, 2017.

[17] Blender Foundation. Blender software, Mayo, 2017.

[18] Microsoft Visual Studio, Octubre 2016

[19] Unity Technologies. Unity software, Junio, 2017.

[20] Android Studio, Enero, 2017. html?hl=es-419.

[21] Aptoid, Abril„2017.

[22] Mazen. Abdulmuslih Alsirhani. Análisis de sistemas de realidad aumentada y metodología para el desarrollo de aplicaciones educativas. Trabajo ?n de Máster. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos. Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Informática. Madrid, España., 2012.

[23] Juan, M. C., Joele, D., Baños, R., Botella, C., Alcañiz, M., & van der Mast, C. (2006). A Markerless Augmented Reality System for the treatment of phobia to small animals. In Presence Conference, Cleveland, USA.

[24] Garcia-Palacios, A., Hoffman, H. G., Kwong See, S., Tsai, A. M. Y., & Botella, C. (2001). Redefining therapeutic success with virtual reality exposure therapy. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4(3), 341-348.

[25] Opriş, D., Pintea, S., García-Palacios, A., Botella, C., Szamosközi, Ş., & David, D. (2012). Virtual reality exposure therapy in anxiety disorders: a quantitative meta-analysis. Depression and anxiety, 29(2), 85-93.

[26] Juan, M. C., & Pérez, D. (2010). Using augmented and virtual reality for the development of acrophobic scenarios. Comparison of the levels of presence and anxiety. Computers & Graphics, 34(6), 756-766.

[27] VR, Therapy for Spider Phobia HITLab. projects/exposure/.

[28] Eustace, N., Head-Mears, J., & Dünser, A. (2013, November). Exploratory development and evaluation of user interfaces for exposure therapy treatment. In Proceedings of the 25th.

[29] Bioulac, S., de Sevin, E., Sagaspe, P., Claret, A., Philip, P., Micoulaud-Franchi, J. A., & Bouvard, M. P. (2017). What do virtual reality tools bring to child and adolescent psychiatry?. L’Encephale.

[30] Pflugshaupt, T., Mosimann, U. P., von Wartburg, R., Schmitt, W., Nyffeler, T., & Müri, R. M. (2005). Hypervigilance–avoidance pattern in spider phobia. Journal of anxiety disorders, 19(1), 105-116.

[31] Garcia-Palacios, A., Hoffman, H., Carlin, A., Furness, T. U., & Botella, C. (2002). Virtual reality in the treatment of spider phobia: a controlled study. Behaviour research and therapy, 40(9), 983-993.

[32] Muris, P., & Merckelbach, H. (1996). A comparison of two spider fear questionnaires. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 27(3), 241-244.

[33] Szymanski, J., & O’Donohue, W. (1995). Fear of spiders questionnaire. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 26(1), 31-34.

[34] Toro, A. A. (2012). Modelo de contexto para realidad aumentada. Revista Universidad EAFIT, 41(138), 44-64.

[35] Brugge, Bernd, MacWilliams, Asa y Reicher, Thomas (2002). “Software architectures for augmented reality systems – report to the ARVIKA consortium”. En: Technical Report. Technische Universitat Munchen. TUM-I0410.