The Laser-only Single-event Effects Test Method for Spacecraft Electronics Based on Ultrashort-pulsed-laser Local Irradiation
The substantive laser method for studying the radiation hardness of semiconductor devices, not requiring calibration by ions, called ”local irradiation”, is described. The essence of the local approach is in irradiating the sample sensitive volume with the ultrashort-pulsed laser beam at some distance from its focus plane, where the beam becomes rather wide and divergent. Assuming the single-photon absorption, the relationship between the laser pulse energy and the excess charge actually generated in irradiated sensitive volume is obtained by accurate measurement of the electrical response, that makes possible to take into account non-uniform optical losses and avoid additional calibration by ions. Some results, obtained using both the front-side and the backside local irradiation of devices, are presented. Comparison with results obtained by traditional methods using focused laser radiation with subsequent calibration by ions showed that laser-only measurements, based on described local irradiation, give the correct estimates of radiation hardness parameters.
Keywords: Ultrashort laser pulse, single-event effect, local laser irradiation, semiconductor device, integrated circuit.
 O. B. Mavritskii, A. I. Chumakov, A. N. Egorov, A. A. Pechenkin, A. Yu. Nikiforov “Laser equipment for hardness evaluation of semiconductor elements exposed to heavy charged particles,” Instruments and Experimental Techniques, 2016, Vol. 59, No. 5, pp. 627–649.
 P. Fouillat, V. Pouget, D. Lewis, S. Buchner, D. McMorrow. “Investigation of singleevent transients in fast integrated circuits with a pulsed laser,” International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems, 2004, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 327-339
 S. Buchner, D. McMorrow, J. Melinger, A. B. Campbell, “Laboratoty testrs of singleevent effects,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 1996, vol. 43, pp. 678-686.
 A. I. Chumakov, A. N. Egorov, O. B. Mavritsky, A. V. Yanenko, “Evaluation of moderately focused laser irradiation as a method for simulating single-event effects,” Russian Microelectronics, 2004, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 106-110.
 A. I. Chumakov, A. A. Pechenkin, D. V. Savchenkov, A. S. Tararaksin, A. L. Vasil’ev, A. V. Yanenko, “Local laser irradiation technique for see testing of ICs,” Proceedings of 12th European Conference on Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems (RADECS-2011), pp. 449- 453.
 A. A. Novikov, A. A. Pechenkin, A. I. Chumakov, A. O. Akhmetov, O. B. Mavritskii, “SEE laser testing at different temperatures,” Proc. of the European Conf. on Radiation and its Effects on Components and Systems (RADECS-2015), 2015, art. no. 7365661, pp. 151-153.
 A. A. Pechenkin, D. V. Savchenkov, O. B. Mavritskii, A. I. Chumakov, D. V. Bobrovskii, “Evaluation of sensitivity parameters for single event latchup effect in CMOS LSI ICs by pulsed laser backside irradiation tests,” Russian Microelectronics, 2015, vol. 44(1), pp. 33-39.
 A. I. Chumakov, A. A. Pechenkin, D. V. Savchenkov, A. V. Yanenko, L. N. Kessarinskiy, P. V. Nekrasov, A. V. Sogoyan, A. I. Tararaksin, A. L. Vasil’Ev, V. S. Anashin, P. A. Chubunov, “Compendium of SEE comparative results under ion and laser irradiation,” Proc. of the European Conf. on Radiation and its Effects on Components and Systems, RADECS-2013, 2013, art. no. 6937390.
 D. V. Savchenkov, A. I. Chumakov, A. G. Petrov, A. A. Pechenkin, A. N. Egorov, O. B. Mavritskiy, A. V. Yanenko, “Study of SEL and SEU in SRAM using different laser techniques,” Proc. of the European Conference on Radiation and its Effects on Components and Systems, RADECS-2013, 2013, art. no. 6937411.
 A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 2007, vol. 90, p. 191104.
 M. S. Gorbunov, B. V. Vasilegin, A. A. Antonov, P. N. Osipenko, G. I. Zebrev, V. S. Anashin, V. V. Emeliyanov, A. I. Ozerov, R. G. Useinov, A. I. Chumakov, A. A. Pechenkin, A.V. Yanenko, “Analysis of SOI CMOS Microprocessor’s SEE Sensitivity: Correlation of the Results Obtained by Different Test Methods,” IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci., 2012, vol. NS-59, no. 4. pp. 1130-1135.
 D. Lewis, V. Pouget Т. Beauchene, Н. Lapuyade, Р. Fouillat, А. Touboul, F. Beaudoin, Р. Perdu, “Front side and backside OBIT mappings applied to single event transient testing,” Microelectronics Reliability, 2001. vol. 41, pp. 1471–1476.
 A. I. Chumakov, A. L. Vasil’ev, A. A. Pechenkin, D. V. Savchenkov, A. S. Tararaksin, A. V. Yanenko, “Single-event-effect sensitivity characterization of LSI circuits with a laser-based and a pulsed gamma-ray testing facilities used in combination,” Russian Microelectronics, 2012, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 221-225.
 A. I. Chumakov, “Interrelation of equivalent values for linear energy transfer of heavy charged particles and the energy of focused laser radiation,” Russian Microelectronics, 2011, 40 (3), pp. 149-155
 O. B. Mavritskii, A. N. Egorov, A. A. Nastulyavichus, A. A. Pechenkin, N. A. Smirnov, A. I. Chumakov, “NIR microscopy possibilities for the visualization of silicon microelectronic structure topology through the substrate”, Physics Procedia, 2015, vol. 73, pp. 183-188.