Aluminium Phthalocyanine Nanoparticles Application for Fluorescent Diagnostics and Photodynamic Therapy in Dentistry


Early diagnosis of tooth-enamel microcracks is of great importance in modern dentistry for caries prevention. It is known that the accumulation of the bacteria in the enamel microcracks can be reason of caries. A promising substance for early diagnostics of the accumulation of pathogenic microflora on the tooth enamel surface is aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc). It could be observed that AlPc does not fluoresce in the nanoparticles form but in the monomeric molecular form it does. This allows identification of local pathological microflora accumulation within microcracks of the tooth enamel because AlPc nanoparticles (nAlPc) can be activated by pathological microflora. This paper describes the nAlPc application for fluorescent diagnostics (FD) of the enamel surface in vitro. To reduce the time from the beginning of interaction of nAlPc with the microflora to the appearance of nAlPc fluorescence, Protelan MST-35 surfactant was used as an additional activator. For FD in dentistry a model compound with nAlPc, Protelan MST-35 and with the complementary components was prepared. The following components were used as complementary: the methylparaben, carbopol, carboxymethyl cellulose, titanium dioxide, sodium phosphate, sodium saccharin and sorbitol, which are commonly used in toothpastes. Human teeth were used for the investigation of the interaction between nAlPc colloid and the model compound with nAlPc for the detection of microcracks and the areas of accumulation of pathogenic microflora on the enamel surface. Statistical processing of the experimental results showed the effectiveness of the surfactant usage for the additional activation of nAlPc and a reduction in the FD time. The application of nAlPc as a marker will make it possible to detect microcracks of the enamel tooth surface at the earliest stages and the areas of the pathogenic microflora accumulation, which can lead to the development of a caries.

Keywords: fluorescent diagnostics, nanoparticles, aluminum phthalocyanine, Protelan MST-35, surfactants, enamel microcracks, tooth enamel.

[1] E. T. Carrera, H. B. Dias, S. C. T. Corbi, and R. A. C. Marcantonio, “The application of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in dentistry: A critical review,” Laser Phys., vol. 26, no. 12, 2016.

[2] H. Gursoy, C. Ozcakir-Tomruk, J. Tanalp, and S. Yilmaz, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry: A literature review,” Clin. Oral Investig., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1113–1125, 2013.

[3] F. F. Sperandio and and M. R. H. Caetano P. Sabino, Daniela Vecchio, Maria Garcia- Diaz, Liyi Huang, Ying-Ying Huang, “Chapter 7. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” in Lasers in Dentistry: Guide for Clinical Practice, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 40–47, 2015.

[4] J. P. F. Longo, S. C. Leal, A. R. Simioni, M. De Fátima Menezes Almeida-Santos, A. C. Tedesco, and R. B. Azevedo, “Photodynamic therapy disinfection of carious tissue mediated by aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine entrapped in cationic liposomes: An in vitro and clinical study,” Lasers Med. Sci., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 575–584, 2012.

[5] V. Uskoković and L. E. Bertassoni, “Nanotechnology in Dental Sciences: Moving towards a Finer Way of Doing Dentistry,” Materials (Basel)., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1674– 1691, 2010.

[6] L. A. Muehlmann, B. C. Ma, J. P. F. Longo, M. de F. M. Almeida Santos, and R. B. Azevedo, “Aluminum-phthalocyanine chloride associated to poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) nanoparticles as a new third-generation photosensitizer for anticancer photodynamic therapy.,” Int. J. Nanomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1199–213, 2014.

[7] S. Y. Vasilchenko et al., “Application of aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles for fluorescent diagnostics in dentistry and skin autotransplantology.,” J. Biophotonics, vol. 3, no. 5–6, pp. 336–46, 2010.

[8] J. O. Kuznetsova, D. S. Farrakhova, and M. G. Yassin, “Aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles as a contrast agent for the detection of tooth enamel microcracks,” in Photon Lasers Med, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 267–322, 2016.

[9] R. Steiner, J. Breymayer, A. Rück, V. Loschenov, and A. Ryabova, “Crystalline organic nanoparticles for diagnosis and PDT,” vol. 9308, p. 93080, 2015.

[10] C. Lim et al., “Nanophotosensitizers toward advanced photodynamic therapy of Cancer,” CANCER Lett., Vol. 334, no.2, pp. 176-187 2012.

[11] C. S. De Paula, A. C. Tedesco, F. L. Primo, J. M. C. Vilela, M. S. Andrade, and V. C. F. Mosqueira, “Chloroaluminium phthalocyanine polymeric nanoparticles as photosensitisers: Photophysical and physicochemical characterisation, release and phototoxicity in vitro,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci., vol. 49, no. 3, 2013.

[12] L. A. Muehlmann et al., “Aluminium-phthalocyanine chloride nanoemulsions for anticancer photodynamic therapy: Development and in vitro activity against monolayers and spheroids of human mammary adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells.,” J. Nanobiotechnology, vol. 13, no. 36, 2015.

[13] M. de Moraes et al., “Effects of photodynamic therapy mediated by nanoemulsion containing chloro-aluminum phthalocyanine: A histologic and immunohistochemical study in human gingiva,” Photodiagnosis Photodyn. Ther., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 592–597, 2015.

[14] J. Breymayer, A. Ruck, A. V. Ryabova, V. B. Loschenov, and R. W. Steiner, “Fluorescence investigation of the detachment of aluminum phthalocyanine molecules from aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles in monocytes/macrophages and skin cells and their localization in monocytes/macrophages,” Photodiagnosis Photodyn. Ther., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 380–390, 2014.

[15] D. S. Farrakhova, J. O. Kuznetsova, and V. B. Loschenov, “The study of laser induced fluorescence of tooth hard tissues with aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 737, p. 12048, 2016.

[16] J. O. Kuznetsova and V. I. Makarov, “Application of nanophotosensitizers (aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles) for early diagnosis and prevention of inflammatory diseases,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 737, no. 1, pp. 1–3, 2016.

[17] S. Y. Vasilchenko, A. I. Volkova, S. B. Korovin, V. B. Loschenov, M. L. Sinyaeva, and E. Al., “Investigation of aluminium phthalocyanine nanoparticles fluorescence properties in tooth enamel microdamages,” Photodyn. Ther., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 77–80, 2006.

[18] J. A. Lacey and D. Phillips, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements of disulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine in the presence of microbial cells.,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 378–383, 2002.

[19] J. Dobson and M. Wilson, “Sensitization of oral bacteria in biofilms to killing by light from a low-power laser,” Arch. Oral Biol., vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 883–887, 1992.

[20] R. Yin and M. R. Hamblin, “Antimicrobial Photosensitizers: Drug Discovery Under the Spotlight,” Curr. Med. Chem., vol. 22, no. 18, pp. 2159–2185, 2015.

[21] C. C. Tonon et al., “Comparative effects of photodynamic therapy mediated by curcumin on standard and clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans,” J. Contemp. Dent. Pract., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2015.

[22] J. a. Lacey and D. Phillips, “The photobleaching of disulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine in microbial systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 120–125, 2002.

[23] V. Loschenov, V. Konov, and A. Prokhorov, “Photodynamic therapy and fluorescence diagnostics,” Laser Phys., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1188–1207, 2000.