Aluminium Phthalocyanine Nanoparticles Application for Fluorescent Diagnostics and Photodynamic Therapy in Dentistry
Early diagnosis of tooth-enamel microcracks is of great importance in modern dentistry for caries prevention. It is known that the accumulation of the bacteria in the enamel microcracks can be reason of caries. A promising substance for early diagnostics of the accumulation of pathogenic microflora on the tooth enamel surface is aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc). It could be observed that AlPc does not fluoresce in the nanoparticles form but in the monomeric molecular form it does. This allows identification of local pathological microflora accumulation within microcracks of the tooth enamel because AlPc nanoparticles (nAlPc) can be activated by pathological microflora. This paper describes the nAlPc application for fluorescent diagnostics (FD) of the enamel surface in vitro. To reduce the time from the beginning of interaction of nAlPc with the microflora to the appearance of nAlPc fluorescence, Protelan MST-35 surfactant was used as an additional activator. For FD in dentistry a model compound with nAlPc, Protelan MST-35 and with the complementary components was prepared. The following components were used as complementary: the methylparaben, carbopol, carboxymethyl cellulose, titanium dioxide, sodium phosphate, sodium saccharin and sorbitol, which are commonly used in toothpastes. Human teeth were used for the investigation of the interaction between nAlPc colloid and the model compound with nAlPc for the detection of microcracks and the areas of accumulation of pathogenic microflora on the enamel surface. Statistical processing of the experimental results showed the effectiveness of the surfactant usage for the additional activation of nAlPc and a reduction in the FD time. The application of nAlPc as a marker will make it possible to detect microcracks of the enamel tooth surface at the earliest stages and the areas of the pathogenic microflora accumulation, which can lead to the development of a caries.
Keywords: fluorescent diagnostics, nanoparticles, aluminum phthalocyanine, Protelan MST-35, surfactants, enamel microcracks, tooth enamel.
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