The possibility of detecting thermal and fast neutrons in 10B solid-gas detector is considered. The simulation of the neutron detection process shows a significant difference in the detector signals caused by neutrons of different energies. An experimental verification of the detector’s operation was performed using W-Be photoneutron source with different ratio of fast and thermal neutrons incident on the detector. The measured amplitude spectra of the signals for different neutron energies were compared with the simulation results. The qualitative agreement between experimental and calculated data indicates the possibility of using this detector for recording thermal and fast neutrons.