3D Printed Models for Teaching Orbital Anatomy, Anomalies and Fractures


Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of using 3D printing models in the learning process of orbital anatomy and pathology by ophthalmology residents.

Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed with 24 residents of ophthalmology at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Each stratum was randomized into two groups. The educational booklets were distributed, and various forms of orbital 3D models were printed from orbital computed tomography (CT) scans. Knowledge enhancement on the topics was measured by comparing pretest and posttest scores.

Results: Thirteen residents who were trained using traditional methods were deemed the control group; while 11 residents who were trained using the 3D printed models were classed as the intervention group. The control group was younger than the intervention group (P = 0.047). The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the total posttest scores between the two groups. Based on the repeated measures of the analysis of variance (ANOVA), score variables were significant between the two groups (P = 0.008). Interestingly, the use of the 3D educational model was more effective and statistically significant with the year one residents as compared to the year two residents (P = 0.002).

Conclusion: This study is the first one in Iran quantifying the effects of learning using 3D printed models in medical education. In fact, 3D modeling training is seemingly effective in teaching ophthalmic residents. As residents have never encountered such technology before, their experience using 3D models proved to be satisfactory and had a surprising positive effect on the learning process through visual training.


3D Printed Models, Learning, Ophthalmology Residents, Orbit

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