Acquired Vitelliform Macular Degeneration: Characteristics and Challenges of Managing Subretinal Fluid


Purpose: To highlight diagnostic challenges in patients with acquired vitelliform macular degeneration (AVMD) with subretinal fluid (SRF) and to examine the characteristics of image findings in patients with AVMD.

Methods: In this retrospective review, the electronic medical record of 22 eyes of 16 patients with AVMD was studied. The rates of SRF, drusen, pigment epithelial detachment (PED), and patient clinical information such as age, length of follow-up, and BCVA were assessed.

Results: The mean age at diagnosis with AVMD was 72 years with a mean follow-up time of 29 months. Median best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/33 at presentation and 20/33 at final follow-up. Drusen was found in 13 of 22 eyes (59.1%), PEDs in 4 of 22 eyes (18.2%), and SRF in 10 of 22 eyes (45.5%) at some point during their follow-up. Of the 10 eyes with SRF, 70% were center involving, and recurrence occurred in 40%, all in the same location as the initial presentation of SRF. Three eyes received an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection for SRF. In 66% of cases receiving an injection, the fluid later relapsed and remitted without further injections during the course of follow-up.

Conclusion: AVMD occurs in the same demographic as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and has many common features. SRF in AVMD tends to be center involving and recurs usually in the same location as its origin. The use of anti-VEGF injections did not seem to improve SRF in contrast to the SRF seen in wet AMD. Proper differentiation of AVMD may prevent unnecessary long-term treatment with intravitreal anti-VEGF injections.


Age-related Macular Degeneration, Vitelliform Macular Degeneration, Vitelliform Maculopathy

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