Serum Levels of Vitamin D in Diabetic Patients With and Without Retinopathy
Purpose: To evaluate the levels of vitamin D in the serum of diabetic patients with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR).
Methods: Thirty patients with DR and thirty diabetic patients without retinopathy were included in this cross-sectional study. Based on ophthalmic examination, patients with DR were categorized into having non-proliferative retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative retinopathy (PDR). Patients were tested for fasting blood sugar (FBS), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25 (OH) D), and creatinine levels in the serum, and for urine protein. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25 (OH) D level < 20 ng/mL.
Results: We found that all diabetic patients had mild vitamin D deficiency (serum 25 (OH) D level = 10–20 ng/mL). The mean serum 25 (OH) D concentration in patients with DR was lower than in those without DR (12.10 ± 14.62 ng/mL vs 15.61 ± 9.40 ng/mL, respectively, P = 0.012). Trace or more proteinuria was frequently present in patients with DR than in those without DR (56% in DR vs 30% in non-DR; P = 0.037). There were no significant differences in the FBS, HbA1C, and serum creatinine levels between patients with or without retinopathy.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that patients with DR had lower levels of serum vitamin D compared with those without retinopathy.
Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Retinopathy, 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D
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