Near Points of Convergence and Accommodation in a Population of University Students in Iran


Purpose: To determine the distribution of the near point of convergence (NPC) and near point of accommodation (NPA) in a young student population in Iran.

Methods: The subjects were selected using a cluster sampling method. All students underwent optometry tests, including visual acuity measurement, refraction, and cover test, as well as ophthalmic examinations. The NPC and NPA were measured using an accommodative target (near Snellen chart).

Results: Of 1,595 students, the data of 1,357 were analyzed. The mean NPC and NPA in the total sample were 7.25 cm (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.02 to 7.48) and 9.99 cm (95% CI, 9.69 to 10.29), respectively. Older age was associated with an increase in the NPC, which increased from 6.98 cm in 18–20 years olds to 9.51 cm in those over 30 years. The NPA was significantly associated with age and refractive errors in the multiple linear regression model, increasing from 9.92 cm in 18–20 years olds to 11.44 cm in those over 30 years (P = 0.003). Hyperopic eyes had lower NPA than myopic and emmetropic eyes (P = 0.001). In younger age groups, the mean accommodation amplitude was lower than the mean Hofstetter value. Moreover, with age, especially after 30 years, the mean values surpassed those determined using the Hofstetter formula.

Conclusion: The NPC values in this study were lower than those previously reported for identical age groups. The Hofstetter formula is not always an accurate predictor of the accommodation amplitude in the Iranian adult population.


Cross-sectional Study; Distribution; Near Point of Accommodation; Near Point of Convergence

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