Anatomic and Functional Outcomes of Vitrectomy for Advanced Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Systematic Review


The success of vitrectomy in the advanced stages of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is defined not only by anatomical results, but also by functional outcomes. Studies have indicated that vitrectomy produces better outcomes when performed at an earlier stage (stage 4 vs. stage 5 ROP). This study reviewed the outcomes of vitrectomy in advanced stages of ROP and the associated factors. PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, Wiley, and WorldCat databases were systematically searched for articles published in the last 10 years. Studies involving participants with stages 4 and 5 ROP who underwent vitrectomy were included. The final search was performed on March 24, 2023. Risk of bias was assessed using the National Institutes of Health Quality Assessment Tool. The results were presented in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020 guidelines. Ten studies were included in the review. A total of 1179 eyes underwent vitrectomy (72% lens-sparing vitrectomy [LSV] and 28% lensectomy-vitrectomy [LV]). LSV was mainly performed in stage 4 ROP and LV in stage 5 ROP. Anatomical and functional successes were more significant in stages 4A and 4B than in stage 5. Factors that improved prognosis included no plus diseases, stage 4, prior treatments such as laser or intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection, and sparing the lens intraoperatively. Vitrectomy resulted in better outcomes in patients with stage 4 ROP. Early detection and a strict screening protocol are needed to prevent ROP progression into stage 5.


Infant, Newborn, Retinopathy of Prematurity, Treatment Outcome, Vitrectomy

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