Job Satisfaction among Ophthalmologists in Iran


Purpose: To estimate the level of job satisfaction among ophthalmologists in Iran and determine the associated factors that may impact their overall job satisfaction.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 181 ophthalmologists (79.0% male) were interviewed by the Warr-Cook-Wall questionnaire with 7-point-Likert scale, which transformed responses from a 0 (most dissatisfied) to 100 (most satisfied). Questionnaires were randomly distributed among registered ophthalmologists at the 29th Annual Congress of the Iranian Society of Ophthalmology in November 2019. Satisfaction under each scale was considered as a score of >60% of the total score.

Results: A total of 181 ophthalmologists with a mean age of 47.8 ± 12.1 years and 16 ± 12 years of practice participated in the present study. They were mostly satisfied with their job as a whole (88.1%, mean score: 60.6 ± 20.7) and dissatisfied with their income (55.9%, mean score: 47.6 ± 20.3). High levels of job satisfaction were found among ophthalmologists with longer duration of practice (P < 0.001) while lower levels of satisfaction were identified among those who worked in academic centers (P = 0.004).

Conclusion: In this study, high levels of job satisfaction were found among ophthalmologists with longer duration of practice while low levels of satisfaction were identified among ophthalmologists who worked in academic centers. The factors of salary and working hours accounted for the least levels of job satisfaction.


Associated Factors, Iran, Job Satisfaction, Ophthalmologists, Warr-Cook-Wall Questionnaire

1. Moorhead G. Organizational behavior. Alvani M, Memarzade Gh, translators. Tehran, Iran: Morvarid; 1995.

2. Mehrabian F, Nasiripour AA, Keshavarz Mohammadian S. Survey the level of job satisfaction among managers and supervisors in different units of guilan governmental hospitals in 1384. Majallah-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki-i Gilan 2007;16:65–73.

3. Daneshmandi M, Habibi H, Sirati Nayer M, Zarei A, Pishgouei AH. Faculty Members’ Job Satisfaction in Selected Military Universities. Indian J Med Educ 2012;12:458–466.

4. Hooman HA. Development and standardization of a job satisfaction scale. Tehran, Iran: Presidential Public Management Training Center; 2002.

5. Moosavi Tabar SY, Rahmani R, Sirati Nayyer M, Abbas Zadeh Z. Influence factors in job satisfaction of nurses in the selected military and civil hospital in Tehran; 2013. Journal of Nurse and Physician within War 2014;24:34–39.

6. Fakhimi F. Organization and management: Theories, functions and responsibilities. 2nd ed. Tehran, Iran: Hestan; 2013.

7. Muqeemi M. Organization and management. Tehran, Iran: Termeh; 2008.

8. Robbins SP. Organizational behavior: Concepts, controversies, application. 9th ed. Minnesota: Prentice Hall; 2001.

9. Teymouri M, Tootoonchi M, Salehi M, Hassanzadeh A. Job satisfaction among Faculty Members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Indian J Med Educ 2008;7:227–235.

10. Ramirez AJ, Graham J, Richards MA, Cull A, Gregory WM. Mental health of hospital consultants: the effects of stress and satisfaction at work. Lancet 1996;347:724–728.

11. Aasland OG, Olff M, Falkum E, Schweder T, Ursin H. Health complaints and job stress in Norwegian physicians: The use of an overlapping questionnaire design. Soc Sci Med 1997;45:1615–1629.

12. Lichtenstein RL. The job satisfaction and retention of physicians in organized settings: A literature review. Med Care Rev 1984;41:139–179.

13. Mick SS, Sussman S, Anderson-Selling L, DelNero C, Glazer R, Hirsch E, et al. Physician turnover in eight New England prepaid group practices: An analysis. Med Care 1983;21:323–337.

14. Linn LS, Yager J, Cope D, Leake B. Health status, job satisfaction, job stress, and life satisfaction among academic and clinical faculty. JAMA 1985;254:2775–2782.

15. Mechanic D. The orginization of medical practice and practice orientations among physicians in prepaid and nonprepaid primary care settings. Med Care 1975;13:189–204.

16. Murray A, Montgomery JE, Chang H, Rogers WH, Inui T, Safran DG. Doctor discontent. A comparison of physician satisfaction in different delivery system settings, 1986 and 1997. J Gen Intern Med 2001;16:452–459.

17. Siegel PA, Post C, Brockner J, Fishman AY, Garden C. The moderating influence of procedural fairness on the relationship between work-life conflict and organizational commitment. J Appl Psychol 2005;90:13–24.

18. Nylenna M, Gulbrandsen P, Førde R, Aasland OG. Unhappy doctors? A longitudinal study of life and job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors 1994-2002. BMC Health Serv Res 2005;5:4.

19. Rosta J, Nylenna M, Aasland OG. Job satisfaction among hospital doctors in Norway and Germany. A comparative study on national samples. Scand J Public Health 2009;37:503–508.

20. Zuger A. Dissatisfaction with medical practice. N Engl J Med 2004;350:69–75.

21. Warr P, Cook J, Wall T. Scales for the measurement of some work attitudes and aspects of psychological well-being. J Occup Psychol 1979;52:129–148.

22. Gholamali Lavassani M, Keyvanzade M, Arjmand N. Spirituality, job stress, organizational commitment and job satisfaction among nurses in Tehran. BJCP 2009;3:61–73.

23. Rajavi Z, Kalantarion M, Kheiri B, Farzam P, Akbarian S. Patterns of amblyopia treatment employed by Iranian ophthalmologists and optometrists in XXII Annual Congress of the Iranian Society of Ophthalmology. Bina J Ophthalmol 2013;19:121–128. Persian

24. Katibeh M, Ziaei H, Eskandari A, Moein H, Mirzaei M, Kalantarion M. Prophylactic patterns for post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis in Iran. Bina J Ophthalmol 2013;19:3–9. Persian

25. Assunção AÁ, Pimenta AM. Job satisfaction of nursing staff in the public health network in a Brazilian capital city. Cien Saude Colet 2020;25:169–180.

26. Yehya A, Sankaranarayanan A, Alkhal A, Alnoimi H, Almeer N, Khan A, et al. Job satisfaction and stress among healthcare workers in public hospitals in Qatar. Arch Environ Occup Health 2020;75:10–17.

27. Yasin YM, Kerr MS, Wong CA, Bélanger CH. Factors affecting nurses’ job satisfaction in rural and urban acute care settings: A PRISMA systematic review. J Adv Nurs 2020;76:963–979.

28. Nair AG, Jain P, Agarwal A, Jain V. Work satisfaction, burnout and gender-based inequalities among ophthalmologists in India: A survey. Work 2017;56:221–228.

29. Omolase C, Seidu M, Omolase B, Agborubere D. Job satisfaction amongst Nigerian ophthalmologists: An exploratory study. Libyan J Med 2010;5:4629.

30. Chen AH, Jaafar SN, Noor AR. Comparison of job satisfaction among eight health care professions in private (non-government) settings. Malays J Med Sci 2012;19:19– 26.

31. Paudel P, Cronjé S, O’Connor PM, Khadka J, Rao GN, Holden BA. Development and validation of an instrument to assess job satisfaction in eye-care personnel. Clin Exp Optom 2017;100:683–689.

32. Shakir S, Ghazali A, Shah IA, Zaidi SA, Tahir MH. Job satisfaction among doctors working at teaching hospital of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2007;19:42–45.

33. Chaudhury S, Banerjee A. Correlates of job satisfaction in medical officers. Med J Armed Forces India 2004;60:329–332.

34. Jain NS, Kersten HM, Watson SL, Danesh-Meyer HV. Gender differences in Australasian ophthalmologists’ experiences of the workplace. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2019;47:706–712.