Update on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Conjunctival Melanoma


The management of conjunctival melanoma is challenging due to the more frequent local recurrence and metastasis compared to other conjunctival neoplasms. Locally advanced conjunctival melanoma may require an orbital exenteration, and treatment options for metastatic conjunctival melanoma have been limited until recently. This review aims to provide comprehensive updates on immunotherapy for conjunctival melanoma, focusing on immune checkpoint inhibitors. We reviewed the available literature on the use of immunotherapy for the treatment of conjunctival melanoma. Systemic immunotherapy, particularly with checkpoint inhibitors, has recently been reported to have improved outcomes for patients with conjunctival melanoma. Immune checkpoint inhibitors that are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for melanoma include anti-PD-1 (nivolumab and pembrolizumab), anti- PDL-1 (avelumab and atezolizumab), and anti-CTLA-4 inhibitors (ipilimumab). Most recent reports described using immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with locally advanced conjunctival melanoma in an attempt to avoid orbital exenteration or in patients with metastatic conjunctival melanoma. Although the current data are limited to case reports and small case series, eye care providers should be aware of the potential role of immunotherapy for patients with locally advanced, recurrent, or metastatic conjunctival melanoma.


Checkpoint Inhibitor, Conjunctival Neoplasm, Immunotherapy, Melanoma

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