Ray Tracing versus Thin-Lens Formulas for IOL Power Calculation Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Biometry


Purpose: To evaluate the ray tracing method's accuracy employing Okulix ray tracing software and thin-lens formulas to calculate intraocular lens (IOL) power using a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) biometer (OA2000).

Methods: A total of 188 eyes from 180 patients were included in this study. An OA-2000 optical biometer was used to collect biometric data. The predicted postoperative refraction based on thin-lens formulas including SRK/T, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, and Haigis formulas and the ray tracing method utilizing the OKULIX software was determined for each patient. To compare the accuracy of approaches, the prediction error and the absolute prediction error were determined.

Results: The mean axial length (AL) was 23.66 mm (range: 19–35). In subgroup analysis based on AL, in all ranges of ALs the ray tracing method had the lowest mean absolute error (0.56), the lowest standard deviation (SD; 0.55), and the greatest proportion of patients within 1 diopter of predicted refraction (87.43%) and the lowest absolute prediction error compared to the other formulas (except to SRK/T) in the AL range between 22 and 24 mm (all P < 0.05). In addition, the OKULIX and Haigis formulas had the least variance (variability) in the prediction error in different ranges of AL.

Conclusion: The ray tracing method had the lowest mean absolute error, the lowest standard deviation, and the greatest proportion of patients within 1 diopter of predicted refraction. So, the OKULIX software in combination with SS-OCT biometry (OA2000) performed on par with the third-generation and Haigis formulas, notwithstanding the potential for increased accuracy in the normal range and more consistent results in different ranges of AL.


Biometry, Intraocular, Lenses, Optical Phenomena, Phacoemulsification

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