Multimedia As a New Approach for Learning in Physical Education


Aim: To present the relevant research results that enhance the possibilities presented today with the use of multimedia applications. An attempt was made to explain its importance in the learning process in general and motor skills in particular. At the same time, we try to define the implementation process and the flags that need attention for the best possible results. Nowadays the use of digital technology has reached very high levels. Especially in the last two years with the COVID-19 pandemic, where distance learning was most used. Teachers have learned to use these digital tools to create attractive lessons for their students, who are already introduced to digital technology in their lives. The use of multimedia in education, as many research suggests, is a modern learning tool in the classroom, but recently they have been used in both physical education and sport. The effectiveness of multimedia use is based on the theory of visualization of information that helps the student store this information in their memory for subsequent recall, make the course more attractive/pleasant, so students are motivated to learn. In PA and sports it is used as a helpful tool, since the master of learning is practice. The means used to present multimedia in the classroom can be tablets, mobile phones, a laptop with a large screen view at the same time.

[1] Chittaro L, Ranon R. Web3D technologies in learning, education and training: Motivations, issues, opportunities. Computers & Education. 2007;49(1):3–18.

[2] Adelsberger HH, Bick M, Pawlowski JM. Design principles for teaching simulation with explorative learning environments. Proceeding of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference; 2000 Dec 10–13; Orlando, FL, USA. USA: WSC; 2000, 1684–1691 p.

[3] Hamada M. Web-based tools for active learning in information theory. Proceedings of the 38th SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science education; 2007 Mar 7– 11; Covington, Kentucky. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery; 2007.

[4] Uden L. Activity theory for designing mobile learning. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organization. 2007;1(1):81–103.

[5] Hmelo-Silver CE. Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review. 2004;16(3):235–266.

[6] Li J. Students forget 95% of what they learn in high school after 3 days. Here’s how to help them study. MyTuition [Internet]. 2015 Mar 17 [cited 2021 Dec 14]. Available from: them-study

[7] Taylor S. Health psychology with powerweb. NY, USA: McGraw Hill Education; 2002.

[8] Bosniadou S. Children, schools and computers. Athens, Greece: Gutenberg; 2006. 31–56 p.

[9] Giakoumatou T. New technologies meet the Greek School Association of Philologists of Aigialeia and Kalavrita ”Dokei moi” Aigio Autumn 2003 vol. 1. www2.eyliko. gr/epimorf/fil/DOKEIMOI.pdf. Accessed 15-2-07.

[10] Burton Dwight L. Comic books: A teacher’s analysis. The Elementary School Journal. 1955;56(2):73–75.

[11] Tzetzis G, Lola A. The effect of analogy, implicit, and explicit learning on anticipation in volleyball serving. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 2015;46(2):152–166.

[12] Bandura A. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1977.

[13] Clark JM, Paivio A. Dual coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review. 1991;3(3):149–210.

[14] Holmberg ?. The development of distance education research. The American Journal of Education. 1987;1(3):16–23.

[15] Watkins BL. The Foundations of American Distance Education. Watkins BL, Wright Dubuque SJ, editors. IA: Kendal/Hunt; 1991. A quite radical idea: The invention and elaboration of collegiate correspondence study, p. 1–35.

[16] Gunawardena CN, McIsaac MS. Handbook of research on educational communications and technology. 2nd ed. Jonassen DH, editor. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers; 2004. Distance education; p. 355–395.

[17] Boswell JJ, Mocker DW, Hamlin WC. Telelecture: An experiment in remote teaching. Adult Leadership. 1968;16(9):321–338.

[18] Chu GC, Schramm W. Learning from television: What the research says. Washington DC: National Association of Educational Broadcasters; 1967.

[19] Hoyt DP, Frye DW. The effectiveness of telecommunications as an educational delivery system. Manhattan, NY, USA: Kansas State University; 1972.

[20] Kruh J. Teleconferencing and electronic communications II. Parker J, Olgren C, editors. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Extension Center for Interactive Programs; 1983. Student evaluation of instructional teleconferencing; p. 293–301.

[21] Spenser K. Modes, media and methods. The search for educational effectiveness. British Journal of Educational Technology. 1991;22(1):12–22.

[22] Lockee BB, Burton JK, Cross LH. No comparison: Distance education finds a new use for no significant difference. Educational Technology Research and Development. 1999;47(3):33–42.

[23] Saba F. Research in distance education: status report. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. 2000;1(1). Available from:

[24] Kozma RB. Will media influence learning? Reforming the debate. Educational Technology Research and Development. 1994;42(2):7–19.

[25] Frank M, Reich N, Humphreys K. Respecting the human needs of students in the development of e-learning. Computer & Education. 2003;40(1):57–70.

[26] Jones A, Issroff, K. Learning technologies: Affective and social issues in computer-supported collaborative learning. Computer & Education. 2005;44(4):395–408.

[27] Vrasidas C, Mcisaac MS. Principles of pedagogy and evaluation for web-based learning. Educational Media International. 2000;37(2):105–111.

[28] Lanningham-Foster L, Jensen TB, Foster RC, Redmond AB, Walker BA, Heinz D, et al. Energy expenditure of sedentary screen time compared with active screen time for children. Pediatrics. 2006;118(6):1831–1835.

[29] Maloney AE, Bethea TC, Kelsey KS, Marks JT, Paez S, Rosenberg AM, et al. A pilot of a video game (DDR) to promote physical activity and decrease sedentary screen time. Obesity. 2008;16(9):2074–2080.

[30] K?rki T, Kein?nen H, Tuominen A, Hoikkala M, Matikainen E, Maijala H. Meaningful learning with mobile devices: Pre-service class teachers’ experiences of mobile learning in the outdoors. Technology, Pedagogy And Education. 2018;27(2):51–263.

[31] Merino Campos C, del Castillo Fern?ndez H. The benefits of active video games for educational and physical activity approaches: A systematic review. New Approaches in Educational Research. 2016;5(2):115–122.

[32] Multimedia Laboratory of the National Technical University of Athens, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. 2000.

[33] Su K-D. An integrated science course designed with information communication technologies to enhance university students’ learning performance. Computers & Education. 2008;51(3):1365–1374.

[34] Elliott J. Design of a 3D interactive math learning environment. Proceeding of International Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS2002); 2002 Jun 25– 28; London, England. New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery; 2002.

[35] Chun-Hong H, Su-Li C, Li-Hua H. A web-based e-learning platform for physical education. Journal of Networks. 2011;6(5):721–727.

[36] Barlex D, Carré C. Visual communication in science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1985. [37] Fisher R. Teaching children to think. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1990.

[38] Arnheim R. Visual thinking. Berkeley: University of California Press; 1969.

[39] Bliss J, Ogborn J, Whitelock D. Secondary pupils’ commonsense theories of motion. International Journal of Science Education. 1989;11(3):261–272.

[40] Ball HG. Cartoon and comic in the classroom: A reference for teachers and librarians, Thomas JL, editor. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited; 1982. Who is Snoopy; p. 14–20.

[41] De Fren M. Using cartoons to develop writing and thinking skills. Social Studies Journal. 1988;79(5):221–222.

[42] Demetrulias D. Gags, giggles, guffaws: using cartoons in the classroom. Journal of Reading. 1982;26:66–68.

[43] Eulie J. Creating interest and developing understanding studies through cartoon. Peabody Journal of Education. 1969;46(5):288–290.

[44] Madden M, Chung PWH, Dawson CW. The effect of a computer-based cartooning tool on children’s cartoons and written stories. Computers & Education. 2008;51(2):900–925.

[45] Peacock A. An agenda for research on text material in primary science for second language learners of English in developing countries. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 1995;16:389–401.

[46] Tsou W, Wang W, Tzeng Y. Applying a multimedia storytelling website in foreign language learning. Computers and Education. 2006;47:17–28.

[47] Peterson M. Creating hypermedia learning environments: guidelines for designers. Computer Assisted Language Learning. 1998;11(2):115–124.

[48] Offir B, Lev Y. Teacher-learner interaction in the process of operating DL (distance learning) systems. Educational Media International. 1999;36(2):132–136.

[49] Fahy PJ. Epistolary and expository interaction patterns in a computer conference transcript. Journal of Distance Education. 2002. Available from:

[50] Weller MJ. Creating a large-scale, third generation, distance education course. Open Learning. 2000;15(3):243–252.

[51] Strijbos JW, Martens RL, Jochems WMG. Designing for interaction: six steps to designing computer-supported group-based learning. Computer & Education. 2004;42(2):403–424.

[52] Henri F. Collaborative learning through computer conferencing: the Najaden papers. Kaye AR, editor. Springer Science & Business Media; 1992. Computer conferencing and content analysis. p. 115–136.

[53] Anastasiades P. Interactive videoconferencing in K-9 Education: “ODUSSEAS 2000- 2004” a case study in elementary schools in Greece and Cyprus. Proceedings of the Diverse 2006, 6th International Conference on video and videoconferencing in Education; 2006 July 5–7; Glasgow, Scotland: Caledonian University; 2006.

[54] Wegerif R. The role of educational software as a support for teaching and learning conversations. Computers & Education. 2004;43(1–2):179–191.

[55] Veermans M, Cesareni D. The nature of the discourse in web-based collaborative learning environments: case studies from four different countries. Computers & Education. 2005;45(3):316–336.

[56] Schellens T, Valcke M. Fostering knowledge construction in university students through asynchronous discussion groups. Computers & Education. 2006;46(4):349– 370.

[57] Beyth-Marom R, Chajut E, Sagiv L. Internet-assisted versus traditional distance learning environments: factors affecting students preferences. Computers & Education. 2003;41(1):65–76.

[58] Kelly HF, Ponton MK, Rovai AP. A comparison of student evaluations of teaching between on-line and face-to-face courses. The Internet and Higher Education. 2007;10(2):89–101.

[59] Bomia L, Beluzo L, Demeester D, Elander K, Johnson M, Sheldon B. The impact of teaching strategies on intrinsic motivation. Champaign, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education; 1997. p. 1.

[60] Skinner EA, Belmont MJ. Motivation in the classroom: reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1993;85:571–581.

[61] Aiken CA, Fairbrother J, Guy PP. The effects of self-controlled video feedback on the learning of the basketball set shot. Frontiers in Psychology. 2012;3:338.

[62] Kiefer AW, Pincus D, Richardson MJ, Myer GD. Virtual reality as a training tool to treat physical in activity in children. Public Health. 2017;5:349.

[63] Mestre DR, Ewald M, Maino C. Virtual reality and exercise: Behavioral and psychological effects of visual feedback. Annual Review of Cybertherapy. 2011;167(1):122–127.

[64] Maarseveena MJJ, Oudejansa RRD, Savelsbergha GJP. Self-controlled video feedback on tactical skills for soccer teams results in more active involvement of players. Human Movement Science. 2018;57:194–204.

[65] Afrouzeh M, Sohrabi M, Torbati H, Gorgin F, Mallett C. Effect of PETTLEP imagery training on learning of new skills in novice volleyball players. Life Science Journal. 2013;10:231–238.

[66] Wulf G, Shea C, Lewthwaite R. Motor skill learning and performance: A review of influential factors. Medical Education. 2010;44(1):75–84.

[67] Wulf G, Lewthwaite R. Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motorlearning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 2016;23(5):1382–1414.

[68] Singer RN, Caurauh JH, Chen D, Steinberg GM, Frehlich SG, Wang L. Visual search, anticipation and reactive comparisons between highly skilled and beginning tennis players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychologist. 1996;8(1):9–25.

[69] Georgiev T, Georgieva E, Trajkovski G. Transitioning from e-learning to m-learning: Present issues and future challenges. Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing, 2006 Jun 19–20; Nevada, United States. Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2006. p. 349–353).

[70] Traxler J. Defining, discussing, and evaluating mobile learning: The moving finger writes and having writ. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. 2007;8(2). Available from:

[71] Al-Fahad N. Students’ attitudes and perceptions towards the effectiveness of mobile learning in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology; 2009;8(2):111–119.

[72] Barahona JD. Challenges and opportunities of mobile technology in physical education. RETOS. Nuevas tendencias en Educaci?n F?sica, Deporte y Recreaci?n. 2020;37:763–773.

[73] Siskos ?, Antoniou P, Papaioannou A, Laparidis K. (2005). Effects of multimedia computer-assisted instruction (MCAI) on academic achievement in physical education of Greek primary students. Interactive Educational Multimedia. 2005;10:61–77.

[74] Sismahendra W, Rusdiana A, Yudiana Y. Improved understanding of student concepts and skills in volleyball learning through mobile learning. Pedagogi: Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan. 2020;20(2):99–110.

[75] Perales FJ, Vilchez JM. Teaching physics by means of cartoon: A qualitative study in secondary education. Physics Education. 2002;37(5):400–406.

[76] Perales FJ, Vilchez JM. The teaching of physics and cartoons: Can they be interrelated in secondary education? International Journal of Science Education. 2005;27(14):1647–1670.

[77] Perales FJ, Vilchez JM. Image of science in cartoons and its relationship with the image in comics. Physics Education. 2006;41(3):240.

[78] Dalgarno B, Lee Mark JW. What are the learning affordances of 3-d virtual environments? British Journal of Educational Technology. 2010;41(1):10–32.