A systematic review and meta-analysis of pregnancy and COVID-19: Signs and symptoms, laboratory tests, and perinatal outcomes

Abstract

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 appeared in December 2019 in Wuhan, China.


Objective: To investigate the clinical manifestations including signs and symptoms, laboratory results, and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19.


Materials and Methods: Scholarly databases such as PubMed via LitCovid hub, Embase, Scopus, Web of sciences, and Google scholar were searched on April 7, 2020. Meta-analysis was performed via comprehensive meta-analysis software using the Mantel-Haenszel method. The event rate with 95% CI was calculated for each variable.


Results: Ten studies were selected. The pooled prevalence for fever, post-partum fever, cough, myalgia, fatigue, dyspnea, sore throat, and diarrhea were 66.8%, 37.1%, 35%, 24.6 %, 14.9%, 14.6%, 11.5%, and 7.6%, respectively. Laboratory test results were 49.8% for lymphopenia, 47.7% for leukocytosis, 83.7% for elevated neutrophil ratio, 57% for elevated C-reactive protein, and 71.4% for decreased lymphocyte ratio. The rate of cesarean section for delivery in all cases was 84%. Of the newborns of the corona positive mothers, only one had a positive test result. Also, there was only one death due to a decreased lymphocyte ratio.


Conclusion: Fever was the most common sign and symptom in pregnant women with COVID-19. Among the laboratory tests, the highest amount was related to elevated neutrophil ratio. It seems that due to the differences between pregnant women and the general population, special measures should be considered to treat these patients.


Key words: COVID-19, Pregnancy, Diagnosis, Signs and symptoms, Meta-analysis.

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