Comparing endometrial hysteroscopic and histological findings of infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility: A cross-sectional study


Background: Infertility is a critical condition in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), caused not only by anovulation but also by endometrial abnormality.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the hysteroscopic and histological findings of endometrial biopsies in infertile women with PCOS and normal endometrial thickness and women with unexplained infertility (UI).

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study compared the initial hysteroscopy and endometrial histological findings of 70 infertile women with PCOS and normal endometrial thickness with those of 35 women with UI. The relationship between endometrial histology and clinical parameters such as including luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone, prolactin, fasting blood sugar, body mass index (BMI), and infertility duration was analyzed.

Results: The mean age of women with PCOS was significantly lower than that of women with UI (27.5 ± 4.1 vs. 30 ± 4.5 years, respectively) (p < 0.001). The mean BMI was higher in women with PCOS than in women with UI (28.7 ± 4.4 vs. 25.1 ± 3 kg/m2) (p < 0.001). The hysteroscopic findings of all women with PCOS were normal, whereas 91.4% of women with UI had normal hysteroscopic findings, 2.9% had a polyp, and 5.7% had endometrial thickening. The histological findings of women with PCOS revealed proliferative endometrium in 54.3%, disordered proliferative endometrium in 17.1%, secretory endometrium in 8.6%, and endometrial polyp in 17.1%, whereas these percentages in women with UI were 28.6%, 0%, 54.3%, and 20%, respectively.

Conclusion: The hysteroscopic evaluation alone of infertile women might not detect all probable endometrial pathologies in women with PCOS.

Key words: Polycystic ovary, Hysteroscopy, Histology, Endometrium, Infertility.

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