Unexpected Diagnosis of Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS) During Inguinal Hernia Repair in 11-year-old-girl


Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS) is an X-link recessive genetic mutation of androgen receptor (AR) gene leading to complete inability of cell to respond to the androgens. CAIS occurs in 1 out of 20,400 XY live-birth babies, and affects about 1–2% of prepubertal girls that present with an inguinal hernia. Although individuals with CAIS have XY, those with grades 6 and 7 on the Quigley scale are born phenotypically female, without any signs of genital masculinization. Thus, individuals affected by CAIS develop a normal external female phenotype with normal female external genitalia, well-developed breast, absent uterus, and bilateral undescended testicles. The question of CAIS diagnosis does not come forward until the absent menses at the puberty is noted or accidentally during an inguinal hernia repair in a premenarchal girl. The present study reports a case of inguinal hernia repair on 11-year-old girl, which led to unexpected intraoperative notion of CAIS. The diagnostic work-up, genetic counseling, sex assignment, and the need for preoperative CAIS screening in girls with bilateral inguinal hernia are described and discussed.

Keywords: DSD, CAIS, bilateral inguinal hernia, gonadectomy

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