Health Ramifications and Recovery Avenues for Sudan’s April 2023 Armed Conflict: A Review


Background: Sudan’s history is marred by ongoing sociopolitical challenges, with deep cultural divisions fueling numerous wars. A new conflict erupted on April 15, 2023, pushing the country closer to a full-scale civil war. This war has severely crippled Sudan’s already fragile healthcare system, rendering 70% of hospitals in combat zones nonoperational, causing 12,000 deaths, thousands of injuries, and leaving 11 million in dire need of healthcare. More than seven million people are displaced, half of which are children, and are facing severe health challenges, especially vulnerable groups. Heath situation is threatening with unchecked spread of outbreaks of communicable diseases that were previously controlled and marked failure in meeting the health demands of patients with noncommunicable diseases, reproductive and child health issues, and people with serious conditions that require adequate follow-up. Moreover, the projections threaten with more catastrophic consequences including famine, environmental destruction, and further displacement of people. This review article highlights the urgency of the situation and explores potential solutions to enrich global understanding of crisis management.

Methods: To comprehensively assess the impact of the crisis and propose a way forward, we drew data by exploring search engines and databases such as Google, Humanitarian Agencies Websites, Google Scholer, and PubMed along with some relevant reports. The search terms included are “Sudan’s war”, “impact of war on healthcare systems”, and “Sudan’s armed conflicts”.

Results: More than 19 publications on the impact of the war on health in addition to periodic reports from international organizations and governmental authorities were reviewed.

Conclusion: Although all publications point to the gravity of the situation and the need for prompt response, this crisis offers a unique opportunity to rebuild Sudan’s struggling healthcare system with the principles of social accountability. Through domestic and international collaboration, this sector can become a model for similar nations, meeting the needs of its people and promoting sustainable development.


armed conflict, crisis management, health impact, health system, social accountability, transitional period

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