KnE Social Sciences | The Economies of Balkan and Eastern Europe Countries in the Changed World (EBEEC) | pages: 295-306


1. Introduction

The division of labor follows the development of the productive forces and that of society, raising the productive power of labor, at the level of a company, of the state and that of global economy. Expands depending on the expansion of economic activity and following its movement takes a new form to the point that the different economies are meeting. The correlation between the movements of the productive forces with the movement of capital finds its objective basis of labour free disposal according to the free will of every civilized man who held this power. The expansion of the global market and the trend towards market consolidation, in the context of globalization, changes the role and how the division of labor is contributed and its ascending level goes beyond the narrow limits of national and contributed in global level. placeEurope is changing and these changes are, among others, political and economic. The dynamics of changes linked to the prospect of Europe and particularly in placeSoutheast Europe by eliminating dividing lines and the expansion in the wider area of SE Mediterranean. In practice this region manifests the crisis of the system expressed in economic crisis, security crisis and immigration crisis and all that accumulated in the aggravation of the economy. It was considered as the “the first and the most fundamental of man's liberties” the right of personal self-determination an indispensable condition for the free development of a person, (according to the International Law of Migration). In this context it becomes obvious that the inalienable right of every man to seek the conditions of its own disposal and positioning in world affairs is above political and economic relations, it is an expression of personal freedom and a prerequisite and outcome of human rights.

2. Capital and Labor Concentration

The social division of labor begets with the exchange of originally different but mutually independent production spheres (Marx). As part of the national production, division of labor takes place between businesses and the production of different goods or between different sectors of production. The bonds that are entangled between the different sectors of production, through the buy and sell of goods from one sector to the other, create the connection between different sectors. The horizontal and vertical concentration of capital on a global level creates the bonds of the production, which maintain the same form but changes the context. In the production process in an industry the bonds connect the partial works among them, while in production between sectors the bonds connect commodities between them in order to produce knew commodities (Marx). The increasing rate of market integration increases simultaneously and the social division of labor between individual markets. It is necessary to approach the markets as a whole and the corresponding global division of labor and capital's concentration. The division of labor leads to complementary economies and simultaneously the problem of promoting the balanced development is created with the aggregate utilization of the resources, initially on a regional scale and then worldwide. The passage from national to regional markets eliminates the concept of economic independence with the specialization of the regional economies. The structure in the sphere of production, furthermore implemented such a way to be multiplied the social division of labor, between countries and the classical concept of economic independence converted into dependence between countries and economies mutually complementary. Development of each country based on its own resources and appealing to the international division of labor for the products it does not produce, were based on the parity rules of mutual benefit and non-interference in internal affairs. The independence is based on economic laws of international division of labor, consortium, concentration of production and capital worldwide. It differs both from the sense of classical autonomy and the concept of subordination and constitutes an advanced form of international division of labor, which appeared at the time of industrial capitalism. The development of monopolies in the imperialist stage of capitalism and the rise of large production, was a consequence of ongoing objectively and subjectively directed developments, and resulted [7] in greater diversification of production and the development of specialization and cooperation, which over passed national borders. The international division of labor was promoted by the increased demand from the side of industrialized countries for massive quantities of agricultural products and raw materials, which are supplied to them from the economically less developed countries [7]. The concept of economical independence became complex and dependent on the course of the colonial movement and was associated with the concept of national independence, which is more general and combined with the ability of countries to be excised from the international division of labor, as a condition of independence. Here applies the law of capitalism, according to which the political power (political independence here) is granted to keep the economic sovereignty and countries that have ignored [14] this law had suffered the corresponding consequences. But society does not end and according to the law of continuity [1] the social production follows this law. The monopoly has undertaken to ensure the law of continuity and thus became the body conducting the worldwide leading changes. The position of monopoly took the supranational corporation and became respectively the guarantor of continuity and changes' bearer. The international division of labor acquires major importance in the sphere of production and in the sphere of circulation between countries and is the objective basis of integration of the global market.

3. Capital and Labor Towards Globalization

The effectiveness of the global economy depends, among others, on the reproduction efficiency of skilled labor force, in coordination with the individual cultural, demographic, characteristics and their exploitation globally. Limitation on reproduction in narrow national or regional context are attributed on the class principle, while global approach requires a dialectical overcoming of national and transitional model of economic organization, the regional, the transition to universal space. The world economy encloses a potential which is not the sum of local economies but a multiple of this sum, because it works the property of synergy through cooperation and complementary markets and the global social division of labor. The acceleration of the process releases the dynamics and energy of national economies. It is about the activation of world reserves of labor power, which is one of the most important trends in global governance. Realizing the coordinate activation of the inactive global workforce starts to become consciousness of global governance and of people as subjects of this governance. The world historical practice shows that the conditions tend to mature, in order to ensure a common acceptable activation policy of global reserves and the integration of cultural heritage in the international division of labor. But this policy is several times activated violently and under economic pressure as a link between political subjects that expands and at the level of modern industrial property rights, resulting to implement the inclusion in the social division of labor, unevenly and anarchically, even excluding the free market law from the spheres of production and circulation. It is the world historical practice, which moves approximately in solving the above problems, unlike the objective laws of social reproduction either at national or at supranational form. The practical implementation of the above policy at international level, within the sphere of offensive realism, indicates the growing economic realities in all fields of the economic process and particularly in the distribution phase. This is the practice of capitalism to act realistic and to recognize the self-evident, that the question of the distribution follows the issue of ownership in means of production. The law of value is the most dominant among the laws of social reproduction and consequently the law of surplus value, resulting in the expansion to international field and to impose the corresponding unequal distribution in national economies. This reality leads the countries in the international division of labor with the pressure initially exercised by monopoly and subsequently by transnational corporation. This movement is deterministic; the national reproduction is historically outdated and at the modern globalized economy practically ineffective. States participate necessarily, with or without their will, in the procedures of transitional era, which is the reality today, irrevocable and historically legitimate. This reality constitutes the wrist of historical development and is a progressive step of humanity, with unique power towards the world state affairs. With the knowledge that the distribution sphere is always dominated by power and interests and content concentrated on the issue of distribution primarily between the ruling class and secondarily between countries, is a first approach to the fact that classes are superior creation of nation-states and people. The understanding of these gives the measure of inequality and anisomeric both in the sphere of production and also in the sphere of distribution of the products of the social division of labor. The objective reality is linked to the strong osmosis of monopoly capital and the law of concentration in the process of configuration of the capitalist division of labor, under the pressure to economical dependent countries which are trapped in the mechanism of capitalist reproduction. It is about the law of the dominant power in international relations, which the capitalistic globalization is based, an unavoidable fact in the imperialistic integration system, which is a real event, with no alternative road to globalization, since this is implemented with the capitalism as the dominant system. However, any resistance or sense of national isolation is impractical and outside historical legitimacy, theoretically untenable. The above dialectical unity, national-supranational, contains the technological division of labor, which converts the production in scientific-technical and increases the scientific-technical content of the product of the social division of labor. The strengthening of scientific-technical production affects the social bond of production, in economic terms, approaching the social base. The social production is increasing in importance and a unity is created, making the socio-economic process more integrated which is becoming though more compact. The rise of technical base and the strengthening of connection with social production reduce the redundant labor. For this reason the entry of countries in the international division of labor with a negative sign at the relation percentage of skilled labor power over the total workforce, resulting in anisomeric economical position in the international economic system, is deteriorating in asymmetry, from the migration of workforce, which immigrates seeking capital. Productive forces and capital move at the same tendency, increasing social division of labor in favor of countries where the capital is invested, and it is not necessary those countries to be economically powerful. The capital will try to find the productive forces and the productive forces will search for the capital and specific places, where the largest concentration of capital is. This movement is organically linked to the implementation of Scientific Technical Progress where the scientific-technical character of production is an intensifying phenomenon of the modern era and the change in the expression of the means of production creates (Marx & Engels) the technological division of labor. The concept of the market and the concept of the social division of labor are closely linked and the link lies in the degree of labor specialization. The rise of skilled labor force acts on this bond and breaks it to change the limits of the market, which expand and respectively ascends the importance of social base of the labor power. The growth of productive forces causes further development of the division of labor (Marx & Engels).

4. Migration as a Historical Phenomenon

Migration as a historical phenomenon lost in the mists of prehistory and accompanies man in every aspect of socialization. Mercantilism replaced by liberalism as dominant economic philosophy and accordingly moved the state law to eliminate the barriers to control trade and travel. The free migration manifested in the late 19th century, the period of the passage from commodity capitalism to imperialist monopoly capitalism and it was closely linked to the imperialistic expansion of capitalism development. The Agricultural Revolution was the beginning of the most significant movement of population from rural areas to the cities, which were the next step towards the external migration, following the discovery of the placeNew World. The economic liberalism has reinforced this trend towards globalization, with the no-price free movement of labor in the European colonies, which were in need of labor force to consolidate. Progressive bourgeois state competed with itself and fulfilled its progressive role, expressed by the Industrial Revolution. The need for expansion of the compressed capital, in the limits of the nation-state resulted in the passage of capitalism to imperialism and from free-competition definitely to its monopolistic stage. Sacrificed the superior form of production by that time, the national and by removing the independence of the colonies with the colonial markets simultaneously redistributed the national ones. Migration increased the population in countries that have accumulated capital and needed workforce, such as the country-regionplaceUS up to 30% [4] and respectively in other countries the emigration reduced the population over 40%. The correlation between the movements of the productive forces with the movement of capital finds its objective basis of free disposal of the labor force and constituted a basic right in the 19th century, as the principle of the free disposal of the labor according to the free will of every civilized man who held this power. From the end of Napoleonic Wars until 1905, no aliens were excluded or expelled from country-regionplaceUK territory. The Foreign Secretary explained in 1852: “By the existing law of country-regionplaceGreat Britain, all foreigners have the unrestricted right of entrance and residence in this country; and while they remain in it, are equally with British subjects under the protection of the law (International Law and Migration). The free movement confirmed the 1889 International Migration Conference as localized “the right of the individual to the fundamental liberty accorded to him by every civilized nation to come and go and dispose of his person and his destinies as he pleases” (International law and Migration). This expression of historical-social side was the progressive movement of humanity towards capitalism, leaving behind the historical era of feudalism where the man was tied to the land, which was under bond to both the working class and for the dominant feudal. Since the right to leave from one's country and the admission into another country was according to Hugo Grotious, (1583 – 1645), an endorsement to the view of freedom and the Foundation of Liberty, although this was not unconditional. It could be submitted to restrictions in the interest of society and in times of war. In this perception of freedom the barriers were emerged when the world was led to war, and together with the WWI the first attempts at restricting migration appeared. Along with the overthrow which this war brought, under the need to share global markets, came the first reversal of the trend towards globalization, as subjective perception of history. War brought in the global perception obstacles, both in capitalism and in socialism, expressed in nationalist trends based on traditional approaches, which appear less or more intensely. Accordingly rearised the issue of state sovereignity and the conventional view about the movement of persons under international law. A normative concept for the state appeared which defined the concept of the state for a whole historical epoch. So it generated opposition in the process of monopolistic imperialistic capitalism, which on the one hand condense the network of international economic relations beyond every interventionism and protectionism and instead of abolished borders, simultaneously raises borders by setting up empires, against which other borders where erected by third parties. From this point begins to appear a set of principles, rules and laws, which seek to regulate the movement globally. In the country-regionplaceUS, the eugenics movement was the major inspiration for anti-immigration lobbies. The US Supreme Court ruled that Chinese, Japanese, Indians and other Asians were ineligible for naturalisation in the US; in US some states, land ownership by these groups was controlled [4]. Generally the international migration law is a puzzle consisting from national, international law and the complexity and interrelation between them and includes also a variety of rules and jurisdictions, creating a vague incoherent and incomprehensive framework. In the conditions of today's globalization, the operation of these laws takes corresponding character. At the same time we are in monopoly capitalism and indeed the supranational character, where the monopoly is an economic and political power, expressed in monopolistic supranational control. Thus the process of migration, beyond transnational and global, is spherical, in economic, political and social level. This process affects the whole society, in every form of organization, national, federal, integrated (EU), expropriating every social subject of the historically formed relations, subordinates dissolves, standardizes it and distributes it universally. Globalization deprives management mechanisms of the economy and the problem of relations between politics and the economy arises inevitably when an overturn occurs which is world-historical importance and as the industrial revolution created the impression that the economic factor is independent and even indeed superior between social relations, so the geostrategic comes to fill the gap in global economic governance. The supranational entity of this geostrategy, under the weight of the past and the pressing need for survival today, crushes the development of specific areas. The realistic interpretation developed in the three dimensions of time with the third being the provision of movement at the turning point. The first level of scientific abstraction approach is at the level of geostrategy and balance of powers and historical movement compared to global governance more broadly. The geostrategy is practice of monopoly and all related mechanisms of monopoly capitalism and imperialism. Born and expire at the core of that period, the monopoly relies on external sources of growth and raises, consequently, the movement of the population in line with the internalization, interdependence, integration and finally globalization. Similarly it elevates social progress because a monopoly is more progressive than the small business and private property. The two periods-stages of imperialism, develop the global capitalist market with the movement of goods, product of materialized labor and the conquest of the nation-states and demolition of the walls occurs with industrial products. The laws of protectionism, customs and other arrangements, all of the arrangements and structural changes, has aimed only in the increasing violation of the law of value in the international field, consolidating the system of unbalanced exchanges and world economy as expressed in the movement of capital and labor power.

5. Migration Trends in See

There is no easy way to define the number and the trends in international migration flows. According to International Organization for Migration (IOM, 2014), one in seven people today are migrants and the number since 1990 increased by 65%. Among them, the number of forcibly displaced people has grown and the reality of global displacement is increasingly complex. The number of people displaced by violence and conflict today is the highest since WWII (IOM, 2014). Even though the great majority of migration has been uprooted by physical disasters, the latest years a great number of migrants is forced to migration by war violence. The figure of 1990 compared to that of 2005 show a slowdown compared with the period between 1975 and 1990, although this is deceptive, because the number of migrants in developing countries decreased but the number from the developing countries to the developed world increased. The global system and the trends has changed over recent years, which represents a very significant shift concerning the countries of origin, the countries of destination and the channels of migration. Many countries might be affected by immigration and emigration at the same time, where country-regionplaceGreece today is one of these countries. While economic crisis forced country-regionplaceGreece to experience emigration, in a reversal trend, after many years of repatriation and immigration, the country became the channel and destination of forced migration. Greece hosted, according the official data of 2012, about one million immigrants with the largest proportion coming from Albania 52.7%, Bulgaria 8.3% Romania 5.1%, Pakistan 3.7% and Georgia 3%, while the proportion of foreigners was 11.5% - 8.5%, significantly higher than the European average of 6.6%. Today a major concern arises among politicians and the people that migrants admitted through temporary channels stay on become permanent or long – term. According to official data, the Greek Government has accepted immigrants from 101 different countries in recent years. Simultaneously, rise asymmetric threats dialectically tied to terrorism as an issue of sovereignty in the placeAegean. Terrorism also acts in a dialectical unity with the war and all work together as a system and expressions of unregulated markets and free competition. These trends are shown with a higher or lower degree of density and are the same laws and trends that act and imposed with an undisputable necessity. When all these phenomena reach a certain degree of density, deterministically will find their counterpart in the neighbouring countries and the rest of placeEurope. The rest of the placeEurope and the Balkans dilated in the form of enlargement through institutional mechanisms, and will encounter the same phenomena, which in the context of globalization can not be avoided. It is not a historical novelty for the region of SEE to function as safety valve for the rest of the placeEurope and the whole region is converted to a “bridge”. Diffusion of the problems even if absorbed by the first containment line the region “bridge” will soon pass and will spill in the interior of Europe. The general issue is the economic aggravation of the region and the short-and medium-term policies, which appear under the pressure of geostrategic options and reinforced by population pressures. Europe needs immigrants, because immigrants can supplement the workforce that placeEurope needs at all levels, from highly skilled, from which it lacks, to the works that Europeans do not want to be engaged in. Also Europe is aging and it is necessary to reverse the demographic trend created and if the migration does not continue, then the EU would lose the next 20 years 33 million people of working age, constituting 11% of the population and the ratio of dependent older people will increase from 28% to 45%. placeEurope needs immigrants and it is known, moreover, evidenced by the studies of various institutes and effort of a common immigration policy. placeEurope notes the lack of international institutions to govern international migration and call for a new international migration organisation and greater international policy coordination. It is a practical problem, requiring immediate solution and solution requires also the streams of migrants which are already moving, and shaping the level of immigration in some countries, for example in Greece.

6. Transnational Capitalistic Class and Discourse of Migration

The economic activities of mixed companies determine the use of resources, and scientific personnel. Operation of the agreements joint ventures, with a governance system, determined by peer relationships synergy, maintaining the characteristics of sovereign nation-states is accepted and magnifies the economic development and incorporates the rational use of resources, the productive forces and the scientific staff. Globalization propounded here adversely rejects stricto sensu state-centrism and pronounce ex parte fortis the end of the state, namely global governance. The concept of global economy postulates the existence of a global system synonymous with global capitalism, considering the dominant forces of global capitalism as the dominant forces in contemporary global system. The role of the state limits the incoming forces of the global economy and the only seeing organization to perform the role of primus inter pares is the Transnational Corporation the ultimate mechanism of a supranational system controlling the flow of energy and resources and determine the movement of goods and services by controlling costs, monitoring of the productive forces and the scientific personnel. Here, the focus is on the Transnational Capitalist Class (TCC) and how it has constructed a discourse of globalization to further its interests (Sklair 2000). The objective processes of globalization are complicated by the geostrategy, under the framework of governing the economy by Transnational Capital (TC) and its expression through the Transnational Monopolistic Corporation (TNMCo) [11]. The geostrategy manifested on the ground of economy and alienates the economic systems, which already are ineffective at the globalized economy. The TNMCo is the core of geostrategy worldwide, which is distinguished by the regional conflicts, seeking capital export and the developing countries seek capital offering workforce. The TCC will fight with the national bourgeoisies and will find obstacles of them, but which will ultimately succumb and thus open wide the way for the internationalization and the transition to globalization of capital, and the productive forces, acting dialectically and so does the relations of production, which from national, regional, international, become universal. The dynamics of the development is such that the TNMCo is the one that has international monopoly capital, much stronger than the limited national capital that remains trapped in the narrow national boundaries and can not be developed. The prevalence of TNMCo, over their respective national, promotes dynamically the internationalization of productive forces capable of moving dialectically with the accumulation of capital, and eventually leads to the globalization of capital and the productive forces. Respectively, the relations of production from national, regional and international become global. The inability of the system to be driven at a higher level with the dialectical opposition of capital and labor force has resulted in the inability to manage the productive forces. In this respect, resorting to extreme methods and violent solutions it is a phenomenon inherent to the lack of management and therefore expected and explainable. At the same time it increases unemployment and marginalization, and the ruling class is responsible for this and unable to utilize the productive forces. This results in the rise of nationalism and any resulting effects, racism, chauvinism and cosmopolitanism, expressed by the political power and promoted to the citizens. History is rich in violent situations solving this problem, with devastating consequences. Even greater experience gives the practice of real socialism in the field of socialist industrialization and the socialist transformation of the rural areas. The logic of the civilized capitalism does not allow genocide and uprooting populations, as is the conquering practice of feudal nature, seeking primarily land. The phenomenon of forced migration is not the result from the opening of borders, but is the result of the weakness of state administrations, which refused the progressive path of development. Expressed globally in developing and developed countries and in capitalist and former socialist, manifested both in the host and departure countries. The so-called “reformations”, “modernization”, “renewal”, “transparency” etc. are the standards movement of capital, it first migrates and organic with it migrates and labor force. Caused thereby osmosis of productive forces, which is proportional to the different levels of development of the capital in each region. Movement of the capital causes migration waves in correspondence with TC, and migration arises as unskilled and highly skilled labor force and associated in the cosmopolitanism that flattens national cultures and creates fear and reaction. This reaction is a reaction against TC which dissolves national production relations and the geostrategy translates it as xenophobia of the people. Migrating also anarchic and random, both unskilled and skilled labor force, the logic of privatization, de-nationalization in private-monopoly basis, the logic of the nation-state dissolution and while local capital looking for support from the state and private intervention, the working force accordingly is looking for support in social associations, NPOs and international organizations. Derivatives are unemployment, hunger and wandering workers, violent feelings of hopelessness and crime of misery and despair, which is a secondary phenomenon and can not be compared to the primary crime of geostrategy, features of which are violence and war. The marginalization of migrants is one of “the events” of this geostrategy and the crimes of migrants are much lower than the extraordinary terrorism. The monopolistic globalization, as market reformation, generates terrorism, as its dialectical counterpart and combat the latter, without the elimination of the first, is an effort to square the circle, as many crusades-wars are made. Geostrategy is expressed in the rhetoric “the borders are not the problem, from the time human rights are met”, expressions of geostrategy, that the borders do not matter but it is sufficient to guarantee the possibility of TC to move freely and to move the workforce accordingly. The basic axiom is that the “human rights” or the right of transnational capital to lease labor force everywhere on Earth, eliminating borders, physically, economically, technologically should be preceded. Immigration-export of TC or monopolisation accompanied by “economies of scale” or “political climate” is constantly subject to geopolitical component of geostrategy, in its latest version, the “Enlargement”. Suppressive mechanism of the economy management is unable to provide a solution and migrants, young and old, outcasts from their countries, discriminated in the host countries as political refugees and economic migrants, according to the non-science economic, suffer from the development and underdevelopment both in their hell-country and in heaven-west; and suffer under economic pressure, unemployment, poverty, hunger and political pressure. The progress is associated with the movement of the population, the internal and external migration. This is connected with the advent of capitalism, whose mission is the progressive replacement of non-economic methods of operation with the corresponding economical, freeing man from the Earth and the Earth by humans. Today however, capitalism is different from all the previous, not only the pre-monopoly, but also the monopolistic capitalism, until the early twentieth century. It has lost the ability to promote the productive forces as neoclassicism either as Keynesianism, as a maintenance policy or as social democracy. Today, we are moving in the line of concentration, on a transnational private monopoly scale, which advances in privatization, de-Europeanization, de-nationalization, as de-language, as de-cultural as global expropriation, as Revelation even Nuclear

7. Conclusion

Economic growth and the productive forces do not always move together, not actuated automatically and the former does not automatically deploy the second or vice versa, these politico-economic considerations, creating potentially dangerous relationships, which require analysis and adoption of new forms of management and control. The globalization of economic activity affects and is affected by the international division of labour, each country's culture and politics as it faces barriers to regional differences, expressed in different ways, as differences in population density, employment, income, the migratory balance, economic structure, consumption patterns, and spatial inequalities north – south and these differences occur both between states and within each state. The continuous enlargement exacerbates the problems between countries and regions. The governance, using quantitative economics, alters both the qualitative characteristics, with alleviating the strong local coherence, false historical truth configuration, dialysis of the state economic structure dissolving the productive potential of economies, altered statehood identity to consumers, rather than producer states. A governance system is imposed in the global arena, manifested geo-strategically. The aim is to bypass the nation-state as a geo-economic space production and geopolitical space techno-economic development and socio-economic prosperity. In the centre stands the will of the great powers, especially the country-regionplaceUS, to impose economic and political model, formed upon their geostrategic goals. The traditional structures and institutions of the nation state, replaced with new supranational formations and new systems and standards of production and circulation, quantitatively larger but fragile and vulnerable to economic changes.

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