Nowadays, when the fast-paced world is presented almost everyone's life, the role of the rest and the recreation is gettting more emphasized. It becomes more important to the people where, with whom and in what kind of circumstances they are willing to spend their free time, and how much money they are willing to pay for it. The growing demand of tourism infers the growing supply of tourism and diversity too. Parallel to this the needs of the people who want to relax increase. In case of a tourist destination it is more and more determinative how they can offer various types and quality of services for their guests how they can cooperate in the region in the area or in the same settlement with other service-units, who can even be their competitors. Mórahalom in Hungary is a good example for that where the cooperation between the several service-units is exemplary. That is why I choose my research's topic: analyzing the ThermálPanzió in Mórahalom. The accommodation service is an area where services are used by all age-group regardless of age and gender. Thus, the target group could include almost everybody. The purpose of my work is to examine the importance of the ThermálPanzió, on the other hand, to do the interrelation and relationship testing among the guests of the pension. The latter is done after the results of my quantitative research among the guests in the pension in 2013.
Tourism is a free time activity. It differs from the usual work schedule and goes with motion. The essential conditions of tourism are the free time and the free disposable income. In connection with that it is necessary to have a sufficient level of motivation . On the other hand, tourism is kind of research field, what developed in the 1960's within the fields of economics and geography. Tourism is presented in all the economic sectors as well as agriculture, industry, the services sector and in the field of R&D (Research and Development), so we can talk about tourism's intersectorality, and its implantation in these sectors .
The demand of tourism is personalized by the tourist. The tourist is the main character of the tourism, an individual, who returns to his constant environment, however tries to get to know the outside world with peaceful purpose. He is motivated by leisure, business or other purposes to travel outside the regular environment or to spend time no longer than a year [5,6,8]. Nowadays, we distinguish tourist, hiker, and transit passenger, depending on how much time he stays in a given location. The people have needs towards motion and diversity, so they need motivation to achieve the specific goal. The basic condition in the decision making of travelling is the need. To make it conscious in people's mind and transform it to action intention, marketing has a role too. It helps in the apperception of the demand – in this time the person becomes motivated – and after that in the recommendation of the targets . Those destinations which are the locations of tourism demand are called tourist destinations. In those places tourism activity goes on, which reflects the market efficiency too. We can say that all the areas visited by tourists can be regarded as a tourist destination. Here the functional connection of the accommodation, transportation and other services appear. The destination itself refers to a spatial extension, it can be a settlement or other territorial unit (e.g.: country, region, county, small region) with adequate personal, organizational and material conditions. In my study it is Mórahalom, proper, the part of the settlement what is the Thermal Panzió [8,9].
For a given place the attraction, the tourism endowment attract the visitors. As the holiday-makers visit different places form their permanent residence, there they also need to have access not only to the basic services, but equally special services too. From these different services the tourist product will be created, what is a service package satisfies the needs of the tourist. In the case of the Pension we are talking about services, so the characteristics of the services have to be mentioned that distinguish the service from the product. The performance of the service is variable, that means, in time and in space it is not the same. The tourists judge a given combination of services in different quality, and they rate differently, independently from the others. It is intangible, so it is not be sensible, because it is not physical natured, kind of an experience product, what the tourist has to live through for the recognition. The consumer cannot determine the quality and quantity of the service before the purchase. It is perishable, because the service which has not been consumed today means lost business . It is in separable, therefore we cannot separate the offer of the service in space and time [2,4,9]. The base of the tourism product is the attraction. Without that the visitors would not seek out the given target place. The scope of the attractions can be a place (sports-ground, theater, restaurant), regional (eg.: Alps Adriatic coast, Lake Balaton, etc.) and universal (Vatican, the Olympics, Mecca, international congresses, world exhibitions, etc.). For an endowment to become an attraction, it has to be discovered. It is also necessary to raise capital, as well as good marketing activity [4,6], (Mundruczó & Stone, 1996).
The economic significance of tourism continues to grow in Hungary. While in 2005 the tourism represented 5,2% of the GDP, in 2012 it accounted for 9,4%. (http://itthon.hu, http://szakmai.itthon.hu)
3. Mórahalom and the Thermál Panzió
One of today's notable trend is the spa bath, and wellness tourism. For the products of these sectors of health tourism there is a demand not only in Hungary, but all over the world. Hungary, might be said, is in an excellent position thanks to the spa and hot water sources can be found in many places of the country. This trend is justified by the fact that according to a survey in 2014, the most popular Hungarian cities were Hévíz, Hajdúszoboszló, Zalakaros, which are popular spa resort cities. Those places are beloved by domestic and foreign tourists too, where the number of overnight stays are really high. (Table 1.) (http://itthon.blog.hu) In the Southern Great Plain region from 254 settlements 40 possess spa and 26 possess thermal water . This is important in our case because the main attraction of Mórahalom is its spa. More and more tourists looking for the opportunities in the holistic tourism, so the creation of the body-mind-soul harmony, which are presented in medical tourism .
In my research I analyze the Thermál Panzió in Mórahalom. Mórahalom is located in the southern part of Hungary, in the South Great Plain region, in Csongrád County, with 5872 inhabitants. (https://www.teir.hu) (Figure 1.)
Examining the measures of tourism in Mórahalom it can be determined that the guest traffic of private accommodations between 2010 and 2014 continuously increased in case of foreign guest nights, while the domestic overnights show growing tendency from 2012. It can also be stated that the domestic visitors predominated against foreigners, and in case of guest nights the average residence time is higher (3,1 nights) than the foreigners (2,7 nights). (http://statinfo.ksh.hu) (Table 2.)
Examining the private and commercial accommodations it can determined that in Mórahalom the tendency that the number of overnight stays is higher in private accommodations changed after 2009. The reason of this is, that from 2010 two, from 2011 four commercial accommodations provide its services to the guests (the Colosseum Hotel was built with a big capacity in 2011). (https://szallas.hu) (Table 3.)
Examining the Thermál Panzió it can be established that the number of visitors from 2013 continuously rising, in parallel, the number of overnight stays is also represent a growing tendency. Between the guests the domestic tourists are in the majority against the foreigners, however, the number of foreign visitors increased significantly between 2012 and 2015, while the number of domestic guests fluctuate. The average residence time fluctuates around 2,4 days in examined period. (Table 4.)
In the period between 2012 and 2015, the guest of the Thermál Panzió account for 20-26% of the number of total guests of commercial accommodations in Mórahalom. In parallel of the increasing number of the guests in the Thermál Panzió from 2013, the number of guests at commercial accommodations increased in Mórahalom too.(http://statinfo.ksh.hu) The ratio of the overnights what were spent in the Thermál Panzió compared to the total number of guest nights in commercial accommodations was the lowest (19%) in 2015, but that does not mean fewer guests for the pension in comparison with the previous years. (Table 5.)
The role of the Thermál Panzió has a dominant role in the city's life, because the Panzió's guests use not only the bath, but they possibly visit other catering units in the town and use other services. The tourism tax paid by the guests is revenue for the settlement and they spend their part of income in the settlement. Among the taxes in the settlement the tourist tax has an increasing tendency in the city, which reached the 500 HUF per capita per day in 2015. It can be considered relatively high because in Szeged, which the county town, the tax rate is lower, it is 450 HUF.(http://ado.hu) The tourist tax paid by the guests of the Thermál Panzió result in constantly increasing revenue in the municipality's budget from 2012. (Figure 2.) This also shows that the role of the tourism remains important for the city.
The pension in the last few years has continuously contributed to the positive performance of Mórahalom. Depending on that I present my research, what was done between the guests of the Thermál Panzió in 2013.The aim of my quantitative research is to map various interrelation and relationship testing between the guests who arrive to the Thermál Panzió in Mórahalom.
4. Methodology of the Research
I used conscious sampling method, and within that typical sampling in Mórahalom. The questionnaires were prepared in printed form for the guests of Thermál Panzió where the guests could fill out the questionnaire from 08.02.2013. until 04.03.2013. Further query was done - in my village -, in Dunaszekcső where those people were asked - with the arbitrary sampling method - whom have already been in the Thermál Panzió in Mórahalom. I received 40 questionnaires from the guests of theThermál Panzió and 12 pieces from Dunaszekcső, so I worked with 52 element sample in my quantitative research. Because of the low number of the elements, the sample is not representative for the basic population .
During the quantitative research I used different statistical methods like association which analyses relationship between quality variables. The H0 hypothesis assumes that the variables have no relation between each other. The alternative hypothesis is H1 and assumes that there is a connection between the variables. One type of the association appears in my study, a 2x2 contingency table, where I examine 2x2 quality attributes with the Chi-square test. Based on the observed data the expected data table will be calculated, after that with the Chi-square function the Chi-square's empirical value will be obtained. The value of the alpha is 0,05. Depending on the critical value what is smaller or greater than the empirical value, we keep or reject the basic hypothesis (H0), so there is demonstrable the significance between the two variables (are they independent from each other) . To analyze the data I used Microsoft Excel software.
My research focuses on three aims:
A1: To examine the coverage -, the requisition of the offered services-, the price-value ratio of the rooms-, and the family-friendly nature of the Thermál Panzió among the guests.
A2: To map the relationship of the pension's guests and Mórahalom (visiting of the city, knowledge of attractions).
A3: Examination of the guests of the Thermál Panzió (with whom, with what, and when they arrived).
Before my quantitative research I made a qualitative research (in-depth interview) what I took into consideration when I composed the questionnaire.
Basically, I have investigated among the guests. The questions in the survey can be classified into three thematic categories. Proper, the questions are about the guest's arrival (with whom, with what, when he arrived), than the questions map the relationship of the guests to the Thermál Panzió, broadly to Mórahalom. The next figure (Figure 3.) helps to interpret the questions and the examined topics of the research:
During the examination I explored whether the Thermál Panzió has a country-wide coverage.As the Thermál Panzió it is a hotel situated in the countryside, I assume that the Thermál Panzió in Mórahalom has no country-wide coverage. Based on the questionnaire survey I created a chart (Figure 4.) which shows, that the most of the guests come from the South Transdanubian region to the pension (29% of the guests). It is followed by the ratio of the guests from the South Great Plain region (25%), than the number of guests arrive the from the Central Hungary region is in third place (22%).It is necessary to mention those guests who come from Serbia, Vojvodina region and from the Central Transdanubian region. Nevertheless in a smaller percentage, but guests appeared from the Western Transdanubia region too.
Further subdividation of the regions on county level, it can be determined that the most of guests arrived from Baranya County (26%). (Figure 5.) Following that the most of the guests arrived from Bács-Kiskun County (14%).The guest's ratio was equal from Pest County, Budapest and the Serbian Vojvodina region (11%). The reason can be sought in the easy availableness of the pension and Mórahalom. Guests also come from Fejér, Békés, Csongrád, Győr-Moson-Sopron, Veszprém and Tolna County too but not in that significant ratio compared to the mentioned Counties. In the case of Csongrád County it is interesting because Mórahalom can be found in this County.
During the examination I worked with a 37 element sample, because the 12 respondents from Dunaszekcső would have significantly distorted the results, and 3 people did not fill out the answer in the questionnaire where they came from. By the answers of the respondents it can be determined the coverage of the ThermálPanzió in some regions of the country is completely deficient (Northern Great Plain, Northern Hungary). This can be rooted that in the Northern Hungary region Debrecen, Hajdúszoboszló, Miskolctapolca, Egerszalók have a suction effect to the guests who seek the possibility of bathing in a settlement.This is emphasized because 84% of the respondents choose the Thermál Panzió as accommodation, because of the proximity of thermal bath.
I examined whether the proximity of Szeged has and influent to the guests who choose the Thermál Panzió. From the diagram (Figure 6.) stands out what aspects had a role for the guests to choose the Thermál Panzió for the purpose of recreation. The majority of the respondents (85%) chose the Pension because the vicinity of the thermal bath. More than the half of the respondents prefer the appropriate price levels and the appropriate service quality. By 42% of the respondents the good accessibility stands in an important place. 13% of the respondents chose the Thermál Panzió because the acquaintances offered it to them. The other aspects have evanescent importance in the case of choosing accommodation (geographical location, programs in the city, proximity of the country border, proximity of Szeged, meeting with friends/relatives, rural settlement, “I do not live far from here”).They also confirm that the significant part of the guests visit the St. Erzsébet Spa which is one of the biggest attractions of the city. On this basis, this part of the examination can be associated to the previous examination which showed that the number of visitors stand out who come from Baranya and Bács-Kiskun County. The good access can have a significant role (the No. 55. main road goes through directly in Mórahalom).
One person chose the Thermál Panzió because of the proximity of Szeged. The reason of this can be that the guests who come to the Thermál Panzió do not necessarily visit the surrounding villages, they rather spend their free time at the spa and in the city. The next part of my examination related to this, which examines the willingness of the guests to go sightseeing in Mórahalom, and in what extent they visit surrounding settlements. In this way I can examine whether active or passive holiday-makers visit the Thermál Panzió.
I also studied the main motive of the Thermál Panzió's visitors (recreation, passive recreation, or active holiday). I do the examination that I take into consideration the sightseeing visits in Mórahalom and in a surrounding settlement. Based on Table 6. 71,2% of the respondents visit Mórahalom, and 36% of the respondents visit a surrounding settlement. In most cases this is Szeged, but some respondents also take a trip to Zákányszék.
This may be due, on one hand, the holiday-makers are curious about the settlement, where they are guests, on the other hand they would like to survey those opportunities, attractions, services, which they can resort there during they staying
From this examination the following question emerges. What is the proportion of those guests who go sightseeing in the city and the surrounding settlement between one-day-stay and more-day-stay guests of the Thermál Panzió? My following analysis based on this question: Do most of guests visit the city and the other surrounding settlementswho arrive several days? Based on the diagram (Figure 7.) it can be seen that mainly those guests visit the city who stay 3 days in Mórahalom. Those who stay one week or spend more than one week in the settlement, all of them visit the city. Those respondents who spend only one day in the settlement, 60% visit the city too.On the whole we can say that independently form the days spent in the Thermál Panzió the half of the guests visit the city. It can't be said about the surrounding settlement because only the half of guests - who stay 4, 5, 7 and 8 days - visit them. This can be due to the lack of the time. Who goes only 2-3 days to the Thermál Panzió, uses of the opportunities offered by the bath and in the narrow context, rather than looking at the city in Mórahalom. If we would make groups between the guests by the days they spend, at least half of the guests go sightseeing in Mórahalom.
In connection with the sightseeing in the city, the question raises: How many sights can the guests mention in connection with Mórahalom, and whether they are able to denominate any sights in the city? The examination seeks the answer to this question, namely, whether the most of the guests are able to denominate sights in the city. Because Mórahalom is a little village, which is known mostly about its spa, it is worth to consider how the sights are known among the guests. From the 52 questionnaire 27 respondents could not (or they did not) denominate any local sights. It means 51,9% of the respondents. Those respondents who denominate any kind of sights, mostly denominated the St. Erzsébet Spa. Besides that,the church, the main square, the Sand Ridge Memorial House, the Strudel House, the AranyszömProgramme House, the bull herd, the Memorial Park were listed, and some of the respondents mentioned the Tuk-Tuk train, the Mórakert, the Colosseum Hotel, the town hall, the VargaCsárda, the market, the amateur theater and the Paprika mill. Based on this information we can establish that close to 52% of the respondents could not mention any local sights. At the same time it can't not be ignored that the response closely related to the willingness of the response, and most of the respondents do not like filling out open questions because it takes more time
I examined whether the most of the people who arrive to the Thermál Panzió come with company. Based on the answers of respondents it can be stated that the major part of the arrivals of the Thermál Panzió (close to 80%) come with their family. It is followed by the guests who arrive with their friends. The guests who come with their relatives or with their colleagues arrive in a smaller proportion. By the surveying nobody arrived alone. (Figure 8.) That passive recreation such as the bathing is done most peoplewith family member or close relatives, this is why the number of arrivals who come with their family can be so high.
The high rate of the guests who come with their family raises the question whether they regard the Thermál Panzió as family-friendly place, and what kind of transportation mean they use to get there. I searched the answers for this two questions in the following examinations.
I examined that according to those who believe that the pension is family-friendly, whether they often come with their family on a holiday to Mórahalom. 48 people from the respondents found the pension family-friendly, 4 people found the accommodation neutral from this aspect. 39 of 48 people, and 3 of 4 arrived with their family. Overall, we can say that most of the guests arrive with their family to the ThermálPanzió to relax. (Figure 9.)
I searched the answer for that too whether more than the half of the guests come by car to the ThermálPanzió. The 7. Table shows that 88,5% of the respondents have chosen the car as means of transport to get to the Thermál Panzió. 11,5% of the respondents arrived by autobus, and only 1,9% of the respondents came by train. Of course in the latter case the combination of public transportation mixed with bus transportation. Those guests who lived in surrounding places (2 people) came by car too. This can be thanked to the fact that Mórahalom could be reached twice as much time, with transfer through Szeged, with public transportation from these settlements (Csanytelek, Szatymaz) than by car. Overall, it can be concluded that 88,5% of the guests arrived by car to the Thermál Panzió.
During the examination that question arised whether the over 56 years age group often resorts the wellness services. Statistical data verify that the utilization of medicinal and wellness services are more wide-spread between the elderly. This is why the aged generation comes to the central point in my analisis. In this way I can assess whether it is general tendency in the circle of the guests of Thermál Panzió. On the basis of the diagram (Figure 10.) more than half of the “over 45 age” guest resort some kind of wellness services in the Thermál Panzió. At the same time 70% of the “56-65” age group, 83% of the “over 65” age group resort this kind of service. The “under 45” age group is not much behind on the basis of the survey because more than 50% of the “26-35” and “36-45” age groups resort wellness services (in 60-57% proportion).
Based on the above mentioned it can be said that the guests over 56 years rather resort wellness servicescompared to other age groups. Based on these data the utilization of the several medical and wellness services in the case of the Thermál Panzió does not lag behind the national tendency.
I examined that those guests who are returning guests, whether satisfied with the rooms' facility and their price-value ratio. To the association analysis I used Chi-square test. The measurement of the satisfaction among the guests was formed that they are satisfied if they are satisfied with both properties, and they are not satisfied if the facility of rooms or the price-value ratio or both got worth rate than 4 in the scale 1-5 in the questionnaire.
Based on these the 20. Table shows that 36 guests are satisfied who are returning guests. 8 non-returning guests were satisfied, 8 guests were dissatisfied, five of them were non-returning guests, three of them were first guests. (Table 8., Table 9.)
H0: the two variables have no relation between each other
H1: there is a connection between the two variables
I counted out the cross table of the expected data from the observed data.
Chi2 e m p = 0,2184365
Df = 1
α = 0,05
Chi2 c r i t = 3,84
Chi2 e m p <Chi2 c r i t because of this we keep the basic hypothesis (H0).
In 95% confidence level there is no correlation between the two variables, so who are returning guests, not necessarily satisfied with the equipment of the rooms and their price-value ratio.
I also studied that what is the most often visited season in the Thermál Panzió between the people who have average income (142.000 HUF/month based on the Hungarian Central Statistical Office data). As for 11 people it was the first time in the Thermál Panzió, the examination I made was between 41 people without the mentioned 11 people.
The most of the guests come in variable period to the Thermál Panzió (26 person). The winter season follows it (9 person), than the autumn (4 person) and the summer and spring season (1-1 person). The following diagram (Figure 11.) shows the repartition of the guests based on their income in certain seasons. It can be clearly seen that the people who have average and below average income mainly visit the Thermál Panzió in variable periods, while the majority of those who have above average income return back in winter time.Altogether 20 people have average income, from that 13 people in variable periods, 3 people in winter time, 2 people in autumn, 1 person in spring time and 1 person in summer time come back as guest to the ThermálPanzió.
I examine whether more pensioners make holiday in the Thermál Panzió than people who are in leading position. This examination also aims to compare the guests' income situation which can be seen in the following diagram (Figure 12.) and shows that the most of the guests are employees, so active workers. They are followed the pensioners. Based on these it can be concluded the Thermál Panzió offers an available price category for both the employees and the pensioners. Entrepreneurs and leaders both stayed in equal proportion in the pension, while housewifes and unemployed people appeared in insignificant rate.
On the basis of the above it can be said the pensioners are higher represented than the leaders.
I made examination whether there is relationship between the origin of the guests and the preference between rural or urban bath. I made interrelation testing with the Chi-square test. Those three respondents who did not fill out the question about which settlement they are from, have been ignored from the analysis, so I worked with 49 element sample. Those people's answers,who did not distinguish or varied which bath they prefer, have been merged because of the low number of the elements. The following table shows (Table 10.) that those who arrived from a city 15 of them prefer the rural bath, 9 people did not distinguish between the rural and the urban bath or varied which one they prefer. Those who arrived from villages 20 people prefer the rural bath in contrast to the urban one, 5 people did not distinguish between them or varied which one they prefer.
H0: there is no relation between where the guest comes from and what kind of bath he prefers
H1: there is a connection between where the guest comes from and what kind of bath he prefers
In the following table (Table 11.) I counted the expected data from the observed data than with the Chi-square test I determine the Chi-square value.
Chi2 e m p = 1,8375
α = 0,05
Chi2 c r i t = 3,84
Chi2 e m p < Chi2 c r i t,.because of this we keep the basic hypothesis (H0).
In 95% confidence level there is no correlation between the two variables, so there is no relation between where the guest comes from and what kind of bath he prefers.
During my research I was monitoring the development of tourist dataof the Thermal Panzió and Mórahalom. Thus I examined the significance of the Thermál Panzió in Mórahalom, focusing on that during the years it still plays an important role in the life of the city. The single, not representative survey what I made in 2013, presents the relationship of the guests to the Thermál Panzió and to the city. During my primer analysis I used quantitative research. Based on these result we can establish that the Thermál Panzió's guests are satisfied with the supply of the pension. A lot of guests are returning-guests which is suitable measure of the guests' satisfaction. Because the most of the guests come for two or more days, they have time to visit the city. There is where the program package would have an important role. Due to most of the guests think the pension is family-friendly, lots of them come to relax with their family. That would be worth to make family weekends, where not only families could be offered discounts, but it can be linked with various other programs (e.g.: organised group visit to the buffalo reservation, bike tour, etc.). As the Thermál Panzió is a hotel, indirectly with bath opportunity, almost anyone can be addressed as a target group. That can be important to address the several age groups with several compiled program package (e.g.: for the elderly age group with medical services and attendant discount, for the families long weekend in spring time combined with a tour-offer, while for the middle-aged couples a long weekend package in a local winery with a wine tasting). Overall, the target group is the group who possesses middle category of the income.
The pension does not have country-wide coverage, but despite of this, it relatively covers well some regions (mainly Southern Great Plain, Southern Transdanubia and Central Hungary), not to mention the pension's impact to Serbia, which results in significant number of guests arrive fromVojvodina. The city's advantage is the good availability, on one hand thanks the main road of No. 55, on the other hand the closeness of motorway which provides easy reach (1,5 hours) from Budapest. Due to the fact that the guests even from the surrounding areas arrive by car (may thanks to the transfer/long public transport), in the peak season it would be worth to assess between the guests, whether there is a need to start a,,bath-bus” from the surrounding settlements. With this the complicated transfer and the long time travelling by bus could be eliminated.
Due to the lack of representativeness long-term conclusion cannot be deducted, these results are mostly authoritative and may compose the basis for a further research.