KnE Social Sciences | International Conference on Educational Science and Training (The First ICEST) | pages: 260–272

, , and

1. Introduction

In line with the dynamic development of national life that is characterized by increasingly open rivalry between nations. Countries Indonesia entered the reform era in many areas of life toward a democratic society. According to Ananda (2002) that in a democratic country, the climate of the lives of citizens and the government are in the system of positive law. Education is always used as an instrument to enhance nation-building. As such, “education policy can usefully be seen as acting at the interface between programmes and technologies of government” (Tikly, 2003, Vong, 2016). Tikly. Vong, points out that “education policies take the form of political programmes of government to implement these programmes in a way that is consistent with the underlying rationality of government” (Tikly, 2003, Vong 2016). In this regard, education policy can be seen as a tool to make governmentality explicit and bridge the government intent with the goals. Moreover, Ananda, 2002, Moos, 2012) confirms that in the state of life of a citizen must know and understand the public aspect of his life or the life of a state that he was able to participate in national life. The discussion about the civic education required for supporting a democratic system is not new in the literature. Of course, the exact nature of such civic education can still be contentious. While there is a strong call for democratic school governance and collective decision making to give students the lived experience of democratic institutions (Power and Scott, (2004),Yuen and Leung, 2010, Raby 2008,), there is a widely supported proposition that young people in a democratic system should be aware of the controversial social issues and be trained to confront the divergent views and make informed judgment. Another discernable trend in the current literature about civic education and democracy is that there is an increasing awareness of the need of civility when divergence of views is confronted during the course of discussion and participation. (Shils, 1997, Shiveley, 2014)), for example, explained that civility is basically respect for the dignity of other people who may have an opposing opinion or unlike mind in a democratic society. The opposite of civility may comprise being rude, harsh and condescending. Boyd (2006) argued that civility, instead being conservative or repressive, is actually an important pillar of a democratic and pluralistic society. It was further explained that civility comprises, but should not be reduced to, simply manner, politeness, respectfulness and courtesies in interaction. Yuen, Leung and Lu (2016) these attributes on the surface reflect a deeper meaning of civility: the recognition of common civic membership with shared rights and responsibility despite the unlike minds. The surface layer of manner and respect, on the other hand, help reduce the tension and cement the root of common civic membership upon which the liberal notion of tolerance can be possible. Moore (2012), deplored that the decline of civility in public discourse and among school students has reached an alarming level and came as a result of ideological group differences that have been exacerbated by the mass media. It was further argued that for civility to return, school students should be nurtured. While they can disagree over issues, they must not resort to using personal attacks, incendiary language and deploying false claims against their adversaries. Accordingly, teachers should have an obligation to model the civility needed and ensure that their own political views do not contribute to incivility. Equally important, teachers, when teaching about political issues of a divisive nature, must instruct students that they have to remain calm and civil regardless of how much they oppose a contrary view and they should never target a person (Yuen, Leung and Lu 2016). On a more philosophical ground, Shukla (2014) declared that the search for social justice, against which most dissent and controversies arise, is never a meaningful defense on behalf of incivility. Forsaking civic friendship will only perpetuate social discord against which the search for social justice vows to eliminate. Therefore, it is urgent presumably fostering and finding information profile lecturers and students CPE More Ananda (2002) confirms that in the state of life of a citizen must know and understand the public aspect of his life or the life of a state that he is able to participate in state life. That means that citizens are required to have the knowledge, attitudes and skills in the life of a state in the life of a democracy.

In order to support, Indonesia become a democratic state, one of the efforts the government is making and enforcing the new curriculum, according to the plan of the Minister for Research and Technology (Technology) Mohammad Nasir said "we've talked to the Defense Minister to help to incorporate the curriculum nationality outlook and defense country for students "(Republika: 2015). In the curriculum, the content of citizenship which is expected not only knowledge and attitudes alone, but also to emphasize aspects of the skills required by citizens in a democracy. Seeing the planned curriculum, the skills aspect becomes a major aspect of civic education. There are two skills needed to lead a democratic life, the skills and participatory, intellectual skills. Both skills can be realized through a college education. Therefore, the college became a very important institution and most are expected to play a role in educating democratic citizens. Given the function of universities is very strategic in skill formation in a democracy. The notion of active citizenship is conceptualized in the international literature in various ways (Hoskins and Mascherini, 2009; Kennedy, 2006; Westheimer and Kahne, 2004). In broad terms, it is linked to meaningful engagement with and participation in the community, civil society and politics. In this context, young people's democratic and participatory citizenship can be envisaged as a form of active practice (Nelson and Kerr, 2006). Other literature describes active citizenship as a means by which young people can “voice their will, needs and opinions” (Aldenmyr et al., 2012, p. 256),

It can be said, in order to become a good citizen in a democratic country, then citizenship education should emphasize to how one understands and is able to participate in public life. How one is able to understand and participate in decision-making concerning public interest, implementation, evaluation and accountability. To manage all necessary public policy, that policy is made for the benefit of people and affect the lives of many people. Thus, in order to become a good citizen, one must understand the public policy. To realize a democratic education is, one aspect of a very urgent is the aspect of lecturers and students of Pancasila and Citizenship (CPE). Lecturer CPE now, served as a good citizen educators to students as a candidate who would also later served as CPE teachers in schools. Because teachers CPE is a very important aspect in realizing democracy in Indonesia. Therefore, it is urgent presumably fostering and finding information profile lecturers and students CPE More Ananda (2002) confirms that in the state of life of a citizen must know and understand the public aspect of his life or the life of a state that he is able to participate in state life. That means that citizens are required to have the knowledge, attitudes and skills in the life of a state in the life of a democracy.

This study seeks to reveal the profiles of lecturers and students CPE today and their readiness task in subjects CPE in the future. Therefore this study is to describe and analyze the level of concern CPE Lecturers and Students of Civics in the state life as lecturer and students of Civics are two key components that will be educators on Pancasila and citizenship education. They are expected to be an example among the people, both in school and outside of school. Therefore this study is expected to answer the following research questions

  • What level of awareness of lecturers CPE toward a democratic state life?

  • What is the level of concern on the lives of students CPE democratic state?

2. Researh Methods

This study was designed using the descriptive method. Lecturers and Students Study Program Pancasila and Civic Education of Universitas Negeri Padang and Universitas Bung Hatta were selected based on purposive sampling techniques. For a sample of students drawn students enrolled in the last semester in Study Program Pancasila and Civic Education of Universitas Negeri Padang and Universitas Bung Hatta (students in the last semester and / or who is writing a thesis). The research sample includes 14 lecturers and 72 students. The research instrument is adopted and developed from the "Civic Education Inventory" which created by Vontz, Metcalift and Patric (2000) of the Civic Center Education, Indiana Universiy United States. Civic Education Inventory consists of 15 (fifteen) variables to measure the level of awareness of citizens on state life (Information through mass media,Politic in government, State Life Care The behavior of public officials, The behavior of public officials,The behavior of public officials, Communication with public officials, Knowledge of the public agency task, The attitude of public officials, Election of public officials, Role of NGOs in public policy,Cooperation between fellow in public policy, Skills Discussion, Attitudes Toward Public Life and Participation Against Public Life). Before Questionnaire was submitted to respondents to be filled, it first has been validated by the experts of Pancasila and Citizenship Education (CPE). Validation of the Questionnaire was aimed to check content, construct, and the language because the original questionnaire is written in English. Data were analyzed using statistical formulas with data analysis techniques description by finding Achievement Level Respondents (ALR).

3. Findings and Discussion

The findings of this research shows that there are five variables that put the position in the highest and the lowest of achievement level of respondents toward public policy and public life. The highest score means that the awareness the citizens to public policy and public life is very good and the lowest score means that the awareness of citizens toward public policy and public life is bad. Regarding of the students, the highest score is in the aspects of the awareness of students toward "Political attitude towards the government" with score of the level of achievement of respondents (ALR) is 74.94. Moreover, the lowest score is the aspect of " Communication with public officials" with achievement level respondents (ALR) 50.43. In term of the lecturers, there are two aspects of the public policy and public life where the lectures get the highest score. The aspects are " Control the state issues" and "Attitude toward public policy". In both aspect of public policy and public life, the lecturers get achievement level respondent 82.86. Moreover, the lowest score got by the lecturers is in the aspect of "communication with public officials" where the achievement level respondent is 47.92.This result is similar to a survey of Hong Kong University students by Chung (2014) supports this point: less than 20 percent of respondents identified themselves as Chinese, whereas about 67 percent identified themselves as Hong Kongers. Given this dissonance in Hong Kong people's perceived identity, the PRC's increasing efforts to unify Hong Kongers' identity into a species of Chinese identity through the induction of nationalistic patriotism have resulted in serious frictions and tensions between the PRC and Hong Kongers (Morris and Vickers, 2015). The 2012 protest movement over the introduction of “Moral and National Education” (hereafter, MNE) as a mandatory independent subject is one example (Leung and Ng, 2014, Min, 2016). The MNE has been described as a “politicized curricular with the aim to strengthen national identity and to increase patriotism among youth” (Cameron, et.al., 2017, Wong et al., 2015) and “the culmination of a nationbuilding project with much earlier antecedents” (Morris and Vickers, 2015, Min, 2016,). This findings means that students of Civic and Pancasila Education are aware and care about state government. But students do not have habit or have not been used to communicating with public officials in state life or if it knows there is a problem in the public life or public service. In line with the lecturers of Civic and Pancasila Education, they are aware and care how to control the state issues and support public policy but they not have habit or have not been used to communicating with public officials. The next finding is the level of awareness of students of Civic and Pancasila Education toward public policy and public life in the daily life. Regarding 15 (fifteen) aspects of public life, students of Civic and Pancasila and Education (CPE) have a level of concern for the life of the state with an average rate of achievement level of respondents (ALR) 67.06. Min, (2016) illuminates the mismatch found between the intended curriculum and the implemented and attained curriculum in terms of the viewpoints of good citizens. Chong, (2016) The focus of the work to be undertaken was divided into three areas: knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens; developing skills of enquiry and communication; and, developing skills of participation and responsible action. There were some differences for younger and older students largely in the form of additional features and greater complexity and challenge. For example, for students aged 11-14 they were to understand “the significance of the media in society” whereas for those aged 14-16 the relevant statement was “the importance of a free press, and the media's role in society, including the internet, in providing information and affecting opinion”. There were also some areas that were introduced for students aged 14-16 principally “how the economy functions, including the role of business and financial services”. This findings means CPE student has not reached a level of care as expected. Of the 15 (fifteen) aspects studied only four aspects where the awareness of students to the life of the state is above 70% which is the aspect of concern for the state of information through the mass media; Political attitude against the government; attitudes toward public policy and attitudes towards NGOs that play a role in national life. While the level of achievement level of respondents for eleven other aspects are under the 70% rate. Chong 2016, Guay, 2013),the Association for Citizenship Teaching had been very active and together with a range of NGOs and the data from Ofsted's inspections there was a sense that this formulation was based on what teachers could and would want to do. The meaning is level of awareness that under the expected score. This is very alarming because 15 aspects asked in this study regarding the knowledge, attitudes and skills that should be owned by prospective teachers CPE competent in educating the nation's children become good citizens in the future. But in reality it is not as expected, the students do not get the level achievement as hope CPE respondents were excellent or good in public life.

Table 1

Achievement Level Respondents (ALR) Level of Concern Students Life Toward the State.


No. Aspects of Life State ALR of Student Criteria
1. Concern for the State Information Through Media 71.30 Enough
2 Political Attitudes toward Government sufficient 74.94 Enough
3 Mastery of Problem 67.92 Enough
4 Attitudes Toward the Public Officials 66.56 Enough
5 Attitudes toward public policy 72.31 Enough
6 Concern for Public Issues 66.48 Enough
7 Communication with public officials 50.43 Very less
8. Knowledge of the duties of public institution 62.15 Less
9. Participation toward public policy 69.03 Enough
10. Contribution to the election of public officials 65.83 Enough
11. Attitudes toward NGOs that play a role in the life of 72.63 Enough
12 attitude of cooperation with others and public policy 65.39 Enough
13 Skills enough discussion 68.33 Enough
14 Attitudes toward public life 65.28 Enough
15 Participation to public life 67.26 Enough
Total 67.06 Enough

In this study also found very interesting aspect, namely the achievement level respondents were very lacking in communication with public officials with achievement level of respondents (50.43). Students who have not had much interest in the life and livelihood and status is still free have never communicated with public officials in order to control public policy for the betterment of the community of nations.

Then the level of concern Lecturer CPE against national life has been good with respondents' level of achievement 71.77 (Table 6). But this is still not satisfactory because of the level of concern should CPE lecturer was very good. If we look deeply of 15 (fifteen) aspects studied only one aspect of the excellent level of achievement respondents level (85.32) only for no.11 aspects that is "attitudes toward NGO role in national life". There has been an increasing focus in many parts of the world on the importance of involving young people in democratic and participatory citizenship. Educators, policy makers, community leaders, government and non-government organizations, institutes of higher education and civil society bodies have emphasized the significance of young people developing civic knowledge and skills that prepares them for active citizenship (United Nations, 2012, Tawil, 2013, Atkinson, 2014). The notion of active citizenship is conceptualized in the international literature in various ways (Hoskins and Mascherini, 2009; Kennedy, 2006; Westheimer and Kahne, 2004). In broad terms, it is linked to meaningful engagement with and participation in the community, civil society and politics. In this context, young people's democratic and participatory citizenship can be envisaged as a form of active practice (Nelson and Kerr, 2006). Other literature describes active citizenship as a means by which young people can “voice their will, needs and opinions” (Aldenmyr et al., 2012, p. 256, Anderson, V., Ndalamba, K.K., Caldwell, C., 2017), Lecturer CPE support that there are 10 (ten) NGO recommended by CPE lecturers to participate and engage in state life. NGOs question include environmentalists, observers of the rights of children and women, religious organizations, student organizations, anti-corruption organizations, youth organizations, superintendent of police, judicial inspectors, observers and observer education and poverty eradication. This means Lecturer CPE understand very well about the building of civil society or civil society (Civil Society) in the state life. It may be added that the lecturers Civics do not like to pay taxes organizations participating anti involved in the life of the state.

Table 2

Achievement level of Concern Respondents Lecturer Life Against the State.


No. Aspects of Life Lecturer Lecturer ALR Criteria
1. Getting Information Through mass Media 81.19 Good
2 Political Attitudes toward Government 73.43 Enough
3 Mastery of Problem 82.86 Good
4 Attitudes Toward the Public Officials 56.29 Less
5 Attitudes towards 82.86 good public policy 82.86 Good
6 Concern for Public Issues 69.35 Enough
7 Communication with public officials 47.92 Very Less
8. Knowledge of the duties of public institutions 82.14 Enough
9. Participation against public policy sufficient 66.19 Enough
10. Contribution to the election of public officials 72.86 Enough
11. Attitudes toward NGOs that play a role in the life of state 85.32 Very good
12 Attitude of cooperation with others and public policy 79.14 Enough
13 Skills enough discussion 68.93 Enough
14 Attitudes towards 55.24 is a lack of public life 55.24 Very less
15 Participation to public life enough 72.86 Enough
Total 71.77 Good

Then from 15 aspects studied, there are three aspects which the lecturers obtained the degree of concern with good value that are the aspect of concern for the State Information Through mass media, mastery of the State problems and attitude towards the issue of public policy. This indicates that the lecturer CPE actively seek out and read the newspaper, face book, WhatsUp (WA) and other social media to understand the problems of the state. This is supported by the mastery of lecturers CPE to the problems state life is good. Then Lecturer CPE also have a good attitude towards public officials. This may be due lecturer CPE deeply understand the meaning of democracy in the state life. Then not much different from the level of awareness of students, faculty CPE also not used to communicating with public officials in resolving the affairs of state (Baker, S., Hernandez, M., 2017, Deborah, l. J. Henderson E. J., Tudball, 2016),. It may be due to faculty position as a civil servant/ civilian state apparatus that has the properties reluctance in submitting information or criticize or write a letter/petition to public officials. Perhaps lecturer CPE assumed by the public as citizens more aware, rules, state law should be a pioneer for other communities in communicating with public officials to develop nation. The next interesting finding, where CPE lecturer who also obtained the degree of concern is very lacking in that aspect no.14 aspect "attitude towards public life". There are three statements in this aspect are: Citizenship as a member of society has the right to participate in public life; Elected officials sometimes have to have unlimited power to achieve important goals for the community; and when elected officials, he has no obligation to hear the opinions of the public / voters. It's got a low score because of possible misinterpretation of this statement lecturer. This means that professors do not agree with this statement, in other words the lecturers are very concerned with public life in attitude towards public life.

4. Conclusions and Suggestion

Based on the findings of the study, some conclusions as follows:

  • The level of awareness of students CPE the state life are at a level sufficient to the level of achievement of respondents (ALR) 67.06 percent. The level of concern in this study include "knowledge Civic, Civic Skills, Attitudes Civic, Civic Values and Civic Action". So students CPE still have some deficiencies in care in state life.

  • The level of awareness of the state life CPE lecturer at the level of both the level Achievement respondents (ALR) 71.77 percent. So the level of concern lecturer CPE to include aspects of national life knowledge, aspects of attitudes, skills and practice / participation in national life. Lecturer CPE much better level of care in state life compared to students CPE. However, there are still some aspects of national life should highly improved so Lecturer CPE really can be an example for students and the wider community both on campus and outside campus as a good citizen.

Based on finding of the study, it can be proposed some suggestions include:

  • Curriculum of Civic and Pancasila Education (CPE) may have to be improved and refined, so that all 15 aspects studied in this research can cover the curriculum CPE Study Program. This is suggested because of the 15 aspects that were examined in this study include the components contained within the competence of professional teachers of CPE that should be owned by prospective teachers CPE qualified and competent.

  • Learning at CPE Studies program should be developed which not only emphasizes the study and mastery of theory / knowledge and attitudes / values, but also the learning process should be enriched with the practices of citizenship. Examples of aspects of the lowest level of achievement respondents (ALR) is about the awareness of students and lecturers in the aspect of communicating with public officials. Perhaps in learning in subjects that are relevant to this aspect of organized practices of citizenship. The examples of the practice of CPE that can be done is to write letters to public officials, to call public officials, petitions or proposals for improvements to public services and other practices.

  • Increase public lectures, bring in guest lecturers and visits to agencies of public service, so that students CPE have extensive knowledge about the state life and if there are public issues so students and faculty can CPE or are already accustomed to communicating with public officials.

References

1 

Ananda, Azwar (1997). Teacher Questioning and Learning Outcomes in Several Indonesian Social Studies Classrooms, Launceston: Disertasi di University of Tasmania (unpublished).

2 

Ananda Azwar (2002). Perception of CPE Teacher's Concern for State Life. Padang:UNP Press.

3 

Aldenmyr, S., Jepson Wigg, U. and Olson, M. (2012). Worries and possibilities in active citizenship: three Swedish educational contexts, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 255-270.

4 

Anderson, V., Ndalamba, K.K., Caldwell, C., (2017). Social responsibility in a troubled world. International Journal of Public Leadership, Vol. 13 Issue: 2, pp.98-115, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPL-10-2016-0034

5 

Atkinson, Christopher L., (2014). Public policy processes and the environment: implications for a sustainable future, Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, Vol. 5 Issue: 4, pp.457-475, https://doi.org/10.1108 SAMPJ-12-2013-0056

6 

Cameron, K., Robert, E. Q., & Caldwell, C., (2017). Positive leadership and adding value – a lifelong journey. International Journal of Public Leadership, Vol. 13 Issue: 2, pp.59-63, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPL-12-2016-0055

7 

Baker, Scott & Hernandez, Morela, 2017). Communicating with stakeholders when bad news is uncertain. International Journal of Public Leadership, Vol. 13 Issue: 2, pp.85-97, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPL-11-2016-0051

8 

Boyd, R. (2006). The value of civility?. Urban Studies, Vol. 43 Nos 5/6, pp. 863-878.

9 

Chong, I. D., Eric, K. M. (2016). Current challenges for citizenship education in England. Asian Education and Development Studies, Vol. 5 Iss 1 pp. 20 – 36 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ AEDS-05-2015-0015

10 

Chung, R. (2014). HKU POP releases latest survey on Hong Kong people's ethnic identity. available at: http://hkupop.hku.hk/english/release/release1150.html

11 

Deborah, J. Henderson E. J., Tudball, (2016). Democratic and participatory citizenship: youth action for sustainability in Australia. Asian Education and Development Studies, Vol. 5 Iss 1 pp. 5 - 19: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/AEDS-06-2015-0028 Education and Political Transition: Implications of Hong Kong's Change of Sovereignty, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, pp. 101-118.

12 

Guay, R. P., (2013). The relationship between leader fit and transformational leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 28 Iss 1 pp. 55 - 73 Permanent link to this document: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683941311298869

13 

Hoskins, B.L. and Mascherini, M. (2009). Measuring active citizenship through the development of a composite indicator. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 90 No. 3, pp. 459-488.

14 

Kennedy, K. (2006). Towards a conceptual framework for `active' citizenship. available at: www. academia.edu/ 1243639/TOWARDS _A_CONCEPTUAL_ FRAMEWORK_FOR_ACTIVE_ CITIZENSHIP

15 

Leung, Y.W. and Ng, H.Y. (2014). Delivering civic education in Hong Kong: why is it not an independent subject?. Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp. 2-13.

16 

Mina Min, (2016). Are we on the same page?. Asian Education and Development Studies, Vol. 5 Iss 1 pp. 109 – 120: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/AEDS-06-2015-0027

17 

Moore, J. (2012). A challenge for social studies educators: increasing civility in schools and society by modeling civic virtues, The Social Studies, Vol. 103, pp. 140-148.

18 

Moos, Lejt., (2012). Educational leadership in a competitive state: a contradiction in terms?. International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 26 Iss 5 pp. 461 – 469: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/0951354121124025

19 

Morris, P. and Chan, K.K. (1997). The Hong Kong school curriculum and the political transition: politicization, contextualization and symbolic action”, in Bray, M. and Lee, W.O. (Eds)

20 

Morris, P. and Vickers, E. (2015). Schooling, politics and the construction of identity in Hong Kong: the 2012 `moral and national education' crisis in historical context. Comparative Education, Vol. 51 No. 3, pp. 305-326.

21 

Nelson, J. and Kerr, D. (2006). Active citizenship in INCA countries: definitions, policies, practices and outcomes”, final report, QCA, London.

22 

Power, D. and Scott, A.J. (2004). Cultural Industries and the Production of Culture, Routledge, London.

23 

Raby, R. (2008). Frustrated, resigned, outspoken: students engagement with school rule and some implication for participatory citizenship”, International Journal of Children's Rights, Vol. 16, pp. 77-98

24 

Shils, E. (1997). The Virtue of Civility: Selected Essays on Liberalism, Tradition, and Civil Society, Liberty Fund Inc, Indianapolis.

25 

Shiveley, J. (2014). Teaching for democratic citizenship: arriving at a guiding question for pedagogical practice. Social Studies Research and Practice, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 81-87.

26 

Shukla, R.C. (2014). Justice and civic friendship: an Aristotelian critique of modern citizenry. Frontiers of Philosophy in China, Vol. 9 No. 1, pp. 1-20.

27 

Tikly, L. (2003). Governmentality and the study of education policy in South Africa. Journal of Education Policy. Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 161-174.

28 

Tawil, S. (2013). Education for `global citizenship: a framework for discussion. Education Research and Foresight, 07 August 2001, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Working Papers. available at: www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/ HQ/ED/ pdf/Paper N7 Educ for Global Citizenship.pdf

29 

United Nations (2012). United Nations Secretary General's global education first Initiative. available at: www.globaleducationfirst.org/about.html 2015).

30 

Vong, Sou Kuan, (2016). Harmonizing a melody?. A critical study of moral and civic education policy of the non-tertiary education system in Macao, Asian Education and Development Studies, Vol. 5 Iss 1 pp. 71 – 93: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/AEDS-06-2015-0021

31 

Vong, S.K. and Wong, M.W. (2010). Made in Macao: how history, politics and teachers frame curriculum practices, Curriculum and Instruction Quarterly, Vol. 13 No. 4, pp. 61-109.

32 

Vong, Sou Kuan. (2006). An excursion into the time tunnel of curriculum development in Macau: a story of discourses and practices, US-China Education Review. Vol. 3 No. 5, pp. 11-18.

33 

Wang, L. and Kirkpatrick, A. (2015). Trilingual education in Hong Kong primary schools: an overview. Multilingual Education, Vol. 5 No. 3, pp. 1-26.

34 

Westheimer, J. and Kahne, J.E. (2004). What kind of citizen? The politics of educating for democracy”, American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 41 No. 2, pp. 237-269.

35 

Wong, K.L., Lee, C.K.J., Kennedy, K.J. and Chan, J.K.S. (2015). Hong Kong teachers' receptivity towards civic education. Citizenship Teaching & Learning, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp. 271-292.

36 

Yuen, W.W.T. and Leung, Y.W. (2010). Engaging students in school governance: a case study of the challenges and the way forward”, International Studies in Educational Administration, Vol. 38 No. 3, pp. 57-79.

37 

Yuen, Timothy Wai Wa., Leung Yan Wing, Lu Sally Jie Qing, (2016). Liberal Studies' role in civic education: an exploratory study. Asian Education and Development Studies, Vol. 5 Iss 1 pp. 59 - 70: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/AEDS-05-2015-0014

FULL TEXT

Statistics

  • Downloads 3
  • Views 10

Navigation

Refbacks



ISSN: 2518-668X