KnE Social Sciences | International Conference on Educational Science and Training (The First ICEST) | pages: 139–152

, , and

1. Introduction

Language is a system of symbols that are meaningful and articulate sound that are arbitrary and conventional; this is used as a means of communication by a group of men to give birth to feelings and thoughts. It means that language can be used as a medium of communication to deliver human feelings and thoughts. Besides being used as a medium of communication, language has an important role in literature. According to (Esten, p.9) Literature is a form of creative art and the work that the object is a human being and language as the medium. From the definition above, it is clear that literature cannot be separated from language, because language is the medium of literature. Human also have an important role in literature, because human are the object of literature. Based on the distribution of Indonesian literary history, there are two kinds of literature; there are classical literature and modern literature. He added, novel is included in to modern literature. It consists of roman, popular novels and short stories. In classical literature includes an old prose that includes of folklore, tale, fable, epos, legend, mite, funny story and solace story. In this research the researcher focus on novel.

The existence of literature becomes a part of human life since the civilization and human culture appears in this world. Literature is a social institution that using the language as the media language is social idea. Technically, anything spoken or written is literature. And there are some kinds of types of literature as the art work. In practice, works of literature fall into four categories or genres: (1) narrative, (2) drama, (3) poetry, and nonfiction prose. All these forms have many common characteristics and all these genres are art forms, each with its own internal requirements of structure and style.

Teaching language and literature intended that the student is able to understand the science of language in use in literary works as well as works non literature so as to conduct and compose language, both spoken and written an. Literary works as a creative activity that shape written or printed has a beauty value, cannot be separated by language teaching because they complement each other, especially in language teaching always uses literary works as its main object in explaining the function and characteristics of the language (Wellek and Warren, p.20-21). On the contrary, literary teaching cannot stand without language, because language is the main element or media of transmitter and literary developer (Esten, p.6). In developing language and literature teaching there are still many students who have not done literature research maximally. One way that can be done by language and literary teachers in providing an understanding of the novel type of writing is to provide research results related to the narrative style. Based on the observation by doing the reading activity of the novel J.R.R Tolkien, researchers find some interesting things, especially in presenting events from time to time and from chapter to chapter so as to give a good understanding to the reader. This is consistent with the opinion of Onega and Landa (in Herman and Vevaeck, p.13) that the narrative is a semiotic representation and a series of events related in a meaningful way temporally and causally. Narrative style presented by J.R.R Tolkien derives from the content it conveys through interrelated texts between events in each paragraph. For that reason, the study in the narrative style is focused on content analysis presented in the novel text.

The use of literature as a technique for teaching both basic language skills is very popular within the field of foreign language learning and teaching nowadays. Moreover, in translation courses, many language teachers make their students translate literary texts like drama, poetry and short stories into the mother tongue. Since translation gives students the chance to practice the lexical, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic and stylistic knowledge they have acquired in other courses, translation both as an application area covering four basic skills and as the fifth skill is emphasized in language teaching. In the following section, why language teachers use literary texts in the foreign language classroom and main criteria for selecting suitable literary texts in foreign language classes are stressed so as to make the reader familiar with the underlying reasons and criteria for language teachers' using and selecting literary texts.

Literary teaching on the EFL general knowledge of learners is a useful way of enriching the language of learners and overall self-development. Literature provides an opportunity for students to express their own points of view, emotions, and reactions. Therefore, the novel story, as a literary genre can be used as a vehicle for improving students' narrative writing. This is because teaching novels can give and introduce students to important elements important in narrative writing. Novel stories can also develop students' imaginative thoughts by introducing fictional characters and imaginative stories. Likewise for courses relating to the teaching of other languages, this research greatly provides great benefits in providing an understanding of the science of language. Especially for literary teaching, research on narrative style of novels is important because not only as one of the literary research needed to live, develop and sharpen the science of literary theory is also able to provide understanding to students about how to appreciate literature and criticize literature. (Jabrohim, p.28-29). The teaching of literature has a purpose that is divided into two, the first part is gaining knowledge of literature, and the next part is gaining literary experience. Knowledge of literature includes knowledge of literary theory, literary criticism, and literary history, while the experience of literature includes appreciation or receptive and expression or productive activities.

Developing language and literature teaching there are still many students who hasn't done literature research maximally. Some colleges teach the course of Literature Research Methods, but the taught material covers only a small part of the literature research study. (Endraswara, p.10-11).Then, there are still many students when preparing a thesis about literary research has not paid attention to the quality of the content and only motivated as a graduation requirement. In addition, the results of research have not shown good scientific level because it has not been supported by the method, relevant research, and lack of scientific reference resources so that it lacks the weight of scientific research characteristics. If this continues, it is feared that language and literature teaching and literary theory will not grow and develop properly. The birth of a literary work, especially novels that have a certain narrative style, is not determined by the concept or narrative structure that can be memorized and understood by the author. It is a fusion of all the potential and creativity and imaginative of the author, which develops gradually in accordance with the maturity of an author in writing (Esten, p.3). This means to be an author or writer who is skilled in packing stories by utilizing a certain narrative style, it is necessary a process of struggle that may not belong to other authors or writers. By means of words, the skill of utilizing narrative styles for the benefit of literature is an author's talent and talent, which may not belong to other authors. Teaching literature on EFL learners' general knowledge is a useful way of enriching the learners' language and self-development as a whole. Literature provides opportunities for the students to express their own points of view, emotions and reactions. Therefore, short stories, as a genre of literature can be used as a vehicle to improve students' narrative writing. Narrative writing is one of the four basic essays writing that are to be learnt and developed among EFL learners. Teaching literature in general promotes language skills and language use, while fiction develops students' imagination as though it can contribute positively to enhancing students' abilities in writing stories that is narrative writing. This study attempts to explore the significance of teaching short stories in developing EFL learners' narrative writing. Narrative writing is one of the most essential writing skills that English language major students have to command.

Novel is one kind of thing that supports the existence of literature and art work itself. Based on that statement, the relation between art work and society which always has its changes is very important in giving the significance influence to the development of literature theory. Nowadays, the existence of novels as one of the art work has the contribution for the art work itself. Novel gives a lot of things discussable and to develop the art work, the developing of novels in earlier century has become the great invention to the printing field of media and their business, even though it is not easy to write an excellent novels, but still the basic of this writing art is to expose what the author wants to tell the reader what they feels, they have passed, or they imagine, whether it is fiction or nonfiction.

2. Review of Related Literature

The use of literature as a technique for learning abilities and very popular in the field of learning and Indonesian language, why teachers use literary and major languages to select text that suits the language classes used will also keep the reader familiar with the reasons provided and the concepts for text and text by the language teacher.

Literary texts in foreign language classes

According to Collie and Slater, there are four main reasons that guide a language teacher to use literature in the classroom. They are original and valuable materials, cultural enrichment and personal engagement. In addition to these four main reasons, universality, non-triviality, personal interconnection, diversity, interest, economic and suggestive power, and ambiguity are some other factors that require the use of literature as a powerful source in the context of the class.

Literature is an authentic material. Most literary works are not made for the main purpose of language teaching. Many authentic samples of language in real-life contexts (ex. travel schedules, city planning, forms, pamphlets, cartoons, advertisements, newspapers or magazine articles) have been incorporated into the subject matter of late. Thus, in the context of a class, students are exposed to actual language samples from real life / context such as real life. Literature can serve as a useful complement to the material, especially when the first level of "survival" has been missed. In reading literary texts, because students also have to deal with the language desired for native speakers, they become familiar with many different linguistic forms, functions and communicative meanings.

For many language learners, the ideal way to improve their understanding of aspects of verbal / non-verbal communication in the country where the language is almost nonexistent, for the learner, literary works, such as novels, short stories, etc., facilitate understanding how communication is in the context of the country. Although the novel world, drama or short stories are imaginary / fiction, the work presents a colorful setting where characters from many social / regional backgrounds can be described. A reader can discover how the characters in the literature see the outside world (ex. their thoughts, feelings, habits, traditions, what they buy, they believe, they fear, they enjoy, how they speak and behave in different settings). This colorful artificial world can quickly help foreign learners to sense the codes and obsessions that make up a real society through semiotic visual literacy. Literature may be better viewed as a complement to other materials used to develop an understanding of foreign learners about the country whose language is learned by them. Also, literature adds many cases to the learner's cultural grammar.

Appropriate literary texts in foreign language classes (EFL)

When selecting literary texts that will be used in the classroom, language teachers should consider the needs, motivations, interests, cultural background and level of language mastery of the students. However, an important factor to consider is whether a particular work is able to uncover all sorts of personal involvement by stimulating student interest and generating strong, positive reactions from them. Reading literary texts is more likely to have a valuable and long-lasting effect on linguistic and extra-linguistic knowledge of students when the text is meaningful and entertaining. Selecting books that are relevant to real-life experiences, emotions, or student dreams is very important. The complexity of the language should be considered as well as possible. If the language of literature is simple, it may facilitate the understanding of literary texts but that is not the most crucial criterion. Interest, attraction, and relevance are also important. Pleasure; a fresh insight into the issues needs to be felt to be connected to the center of the student's attention; the pleasure of meeting one's thoughts or situations is made clear in a work of art; the same pleasures of caring for those same thoughts, feelings, emotions, or situations are presented by a new perspective: these are all intended to help the student when faced with linguistic obstacles that may be too great in comparatively minimal material (Collie and Slatter, p. 6-7).

Literature and teaching language skills

Literature plays an important role in teaching four basic language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking. However, when using literature in the classroom, these abilities should never be taught separately but in an integrated way. Teachers should try to teach basic language skills as an integral part of the use of spoken or written language, as part of the intent to create interactional and referential meanings, not only as an aspect of the production of words, phrases, and spoken words and written.

Literature and writing

Literature can be a powerful and motivating source for writing activities in the EFL context, both (literature and writing) as a model and as subject matter. Literature as a model / instance occurs when the student's writing appears to be the same as the original work or clearly mimics the content, theme, composition, and / or style. However, when the students' writing shows original thinking such as interpretation or analysis, or when the thought arises from their own, or the thought is creatively stimulated by, reading, literature serves as the subject matter. Literature places a huge diversity of themes for a variety of writing activities such as guided, free, controlled writing and so on. There are three kinds of writing that can be based on literature as a model: Controlled writing: controlled model-based exercises which are widely used in writing baseline levels typically require the discourse of adaptations in any way to practice specific grammatical structures. For example, students can be reporters who are doing a live news event, or they can rewrite a third person's point of view into the first person's perspective of a character. Guided writing: this activity corresponds to the EFL intermediate level. Students respond to a sequence of questions or complete sentences which when put together, they can retell or summarize the given model. In some cases, students complete the exercise after they receive the first few sentences or topic sentences from a summary, paraphrase, or description. Guided writing exercises, especially at the literal level, allow students to understand a work. The model approach and scenario approach will be very useful in this regard.

Literature as subject matter to write

Finding the materials / materials that are appropriate for the writing class is sometimes difficult for teachers to write / write because writing does not have its own subject matter. One of the advantages that literature has as a reading content of a composing lesson is that the readings are subject to the problem of making up. In a writing lesson whose literary content is literature, students make inferences, formulate their own thoughts, and look closely at a text for evidence to support generalization. So, they learn how to think creatively, freely, and critically. Such training helps them in other lessons that require logical reasoning, independent thinking, and careful analysis of the text (Spack, p.719).

Advantages of using novels on language teaching

In short, the use of novels is a very useful technique in today's language classes. If carefully selected, using a novel to make reading students motivational, interesting and entertaining, although many students find that reading a novel written in a target language is difficult, boring, yet novel is an effective way to build vocabulary and develop reading comprehension skills. Only through reading can students expand the horizon, become familiar with other cultures, and so develop their intercultural communicative competencies, learning how to see the world from different perspectives. The result will bear fruit into the ability to write and think critically.

Abrams, Leech, & Short (in Nurgiyantoro, p.276-277) explain that style or style is the ordinance of the author expressing or using language in prose and in a particular context. (Stanton, p.61) also points out the style as the author's way of using language by mixing aspects of complexity, rhythm, length of sentences, detail, humor, concreteness, and the number of images and metaphors. Stanton only more generally states that the style is apathetic in all forms of discourse. Style is also put forward by Semi (p.24) as an author's ability in processing the language in a way that gives the impression of beauty. This is in accordance with the opinion of Luxemburg (in Semi, p.24) that the style concerns everything that gives characteristic to a text and makes the text belong to certain authors who distinguish it from others. Some of the opinions above show similarities and complement each other about style. Thus, it can be concluded that the style is all the way that the author did in using the language in the creation of literary works that gave rise to the distinctive characteristics of authors who distinguish from other authors. With regard to the narrative many scholars describe the nature of narrative and all of them have more in common and different perceptions. According to Herman and Vervaeck (p.11) can be interpreted as traditionally a narrative is considered to be a sequence of events meaningful narrative is a sequence of events. Onega and Landa (in Herman and Vervaeck, p.13) explain that the narrative is a semiotic representation and a series of events associated with meaning in a temporal and causal way. Then Wellek and Warren (p.280-282) explain more specific narratives only limited to a work of fiction that tells the actions that constitute a cause or effect event in a certain period of time.

Narrative is also put forward by Herman (p. 23-24) that narrative as the expression of the mind or cognitive narrator in the form of discourse that reveals the story of events or sequences of events (action) inspired from information in the form of problem solving, conflict, interpersonal relationships, human experience, and the existence of existence that has a social function. According to Bortolussi and Dixon (p.1), narratives are described as more general in the ability of authors to use language to explain and interpret all aspects of society and the social experience of the world around us. From some opinions about narrative, it can be concluded that the narrative is a work of fiction that tells the story in the form of text by presenting events or sequences of events are interrelated in a meaningful way temporally and causally inspired by information in the form of life experiences writers in a unity of time. When combined with the notion of style and narrative can be concluded that the narrative style is the way the author uses the language with his trademark in telling some events or events into the form of textual discourse are interrelated in a meaningful way temporally and causally inspired from information in the form of life experiences author in a unified time. The narrative style used in this study is limited to narrative style in the form of narrative or storytelling in a novel text which is in the form of a story told in text form.

Aspects of narrative style

Herman and Vervaeck (p. 59) suggest that aspects of narrative style builders in novels that concretely tell events to the reader temporally and causally consist of: time, characterization, and focalization. According to Genette (in Gamble and Yates, 2002: 48), time in fiction, duration, order, and frequency, Herman and Vervaeck (p. 60-63) suggest that the duration is measured by comparing the time required to read an event explanation with the time when an event occurred. Duration can be demonstrated in the presence of ellipsis, acceleration, scene, deceleration, and pause. Then, according to Eriyanto (p.25), the duration is the time of an event that occurred whether viewed from the story, plot, or refer to the text. Herman (p.57) explains the order as presenting the sequence of events in the important text because the temporal experience of narrative and sequence aims to anticipate the reader about what will happen next in the story as well as what will happen at the end of the story. In determining order, Genette (in Herman and Vervaeck, p. 64-65) refers to three categories, namely direction, distance, and range. Direction can occur in two directions related to the main narrative that aims to advance and backward. For example, if the main narrative shows the last three weeks of protagonist life, all the memories of his youth and all anticipation of life after death will be beyond the narrative. The memory will be an example of analepsis (flashback) and this anticipation becomes an example of prolepsis (flash-forward).

Genette (in Herman and Vervaeck, p.65) also describes the reach as the time range covered in analepsis or prolepsis. If memory involves a particular event, then the analepsis is timely. Whereas if the memory consists of the entire period, the flashback is then called durative or complete. For example the analepsis in the map is the duration as it illustrates the complete time limit from the time of the map discovery to the disposal of the map. If the author gives varying scores or periods in a story, the theme will appear more clearly or the tension may increase. According to Herman (2007: 59), the frequency associated with the repetition of events and if events are repeated several times in the narrative will affect the interpretation of the reader. Genette (in Herman and Vervaeck, p.66-67), frequency refers to the relationship between the amount of time an event takes place in a story and sometime of events occurring in a narrative. This relationship is singulative, literacy, and repetition.

Narrative style in terms of character aspect. Herman and Vervaeck (p.66) describe characterization as the way in which characters are represented in narrative stories so as to have a constructive role in the story. Gass (in Hoffman and Muphy, p. 267) describes characters as people, symbols, and ideas. According to Stanton (p. 33-34), more characters lead to the nature brought by the characters in the story. In analyzing the characters according to Eriyanto (p. 71-73) refers to the propp model that has been simplified into 7 characters in the narrative. Then, Rimmon-Kenan (in Herman Vervaeck, p. 67-68) explains that in characterizing the characters in the narrative text it can use three methods, namely direct characterization, indirect characterization, and characterization through analogy. Herman and Vervaeck further explained that the type of focalization based on the stability criteria is divided into three, namely fixed focalization and focalization of variables, and multi focalizations. Focalizations remain present when the story events are seen / perceived by a single agent. Focalization of the variable is present when the event is perceived by two alternating characters. Then, multiple focalizations are present when the event is felt more than two centers of perception. Can be interpreted that showing the same event through a number of focalizers will add variety, but will often complicate the preparation of narrative.

The novel is described by Gillie (in Aziez and Hasim, p. 12) as a form of literary work that elevates the reality of human life which emerged in the 18th century AD, as a result of several causes including: social, philosophical, and literary. Clara Reeve in Wellek and Warren (p.282) explains that the novel is a picture of real life and manners, and of the time in which it is written. In this case the novel means a picture of real life and behavior, from the time at which the novel was written. This view emphasizes that a good novel is able to raise the reality of society so that the series of stories authored by the author can reflect the life of the society in the time the novel was written.

3. Research Methodology

The research method used is qualitative research method with content analysis technique and qualitative approach. Qualitative method because the data obtained are descriptive in the form of words with the main instrument of researchers in the analysis, is inductive that the conclusions obtained after making the findings and analysis, and make meaning to the data obtained from the novel text (Bodgan and Biklen in Emzir, p. 2-4). Content analysis is intended for the analysis of a communication content in the form of conversations, written texts, interviews, photography, and others that are categorized and classified based on the issues raised (Emzir, p. 283-285).

The research procedure is guided by qualitative content analysis method. Content analysis method according to Emzir is a qualitative-oriented procedure of text interpretation so as to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the problems studied. The content analysis method used is centered on the message content. The contents of a message can only be obtained through content analysis on solid documents. In this case the document to be studied is the lord of the ring novel: the return of the king by JRR Tolkien. The following research procedures will be conducted in this study:

  • Identify the topic of unexamined problem in the novel text;

  • Conduct a literature review that identifies relevant important information and studies and to write a research question;

  • Defining the role of the novel text;

  • Data collection by finding and reading the text of the novel or data in text file form;

  • Data analysis, beginning with compiling a summary of the novel, explaining, clarifying, material annotation, structuring, defining analysis units, and material analysis;

  • Summarize and explain the themes and patterns in the form of narrative or by involving discussion of how the findings of previous studies in the problems studied.

Techniques of data collection using documentation analysis techniques, libraries, and notes, then the method of data analysis using Philips Mayring contents analysis method with inductive model, the data analysis procedure using the content analysis method consists of 9 stages, among which are: (1) the determination of the material consists of the source of the problem formulation; (2) analysis of situations where the text originated; (3) formally materials; (4) determining the direction of analysis of each material; (5) the differentiation of questions that must be answered in accordance with theory; (6) culling of analytical techniques (7) defining analytical units; (8) material analysis; (9) data interpretation; and (10) conclusions (Titscher, p.107-108).

4. Discussion

Research into the narrative style in the text of the novel has several aspects that built it, the story time, characterization, and focalization with explanation as follows.

Narrative style: Aspect of time

It can be explained that the narrative style in terms of time aspect consists of: duration, sequence, and frequency. Duration is divided into two, namely (1) duration based on the form consists of: the duration of the story, the duration of the plot, and the duration of the text; (2) duration based on time relationships in the text, namely: ellipsis, acceleration, scene, deceleration, and pause. The order in terms of categories consists of: direction, distance, and reach. Direction of prolepsis and analepsis, internal prolonged distance and internal analytical and internal prolepsis combination, and prolepsis shaped range on time and timely prolepsis blend and timely analepsis. Then, the frequency is divided into two, namely the frequency of repetition and simple singulative.

Narrative style: Aspect of characterization

Characterization contained in the novel text the return of the king in the form of direct characterization, indirect characterization, and characterization through analogy. Most types of characterization are by indirect characterization and the least of which is characterization through analogy. We can explain that in JRR Tolkien's novel The lord of the ring the return of the king has a character whose appearance is most often appear in the story usually hold the most important part of the story in this novel and characterize them as the center of action and theme of the story called the main character, after analyzing the novel of the return of the king found that there are five main characters in a novel.

Narrative Style: Aspects of Focalization

Focalization in JRR Tolkien's novel is divided into two categories, namely (1) based on the focalizer's internal focalization position and (2) based on the stability criteria of fixed focalization and focalization of variables. The following table shows that the focalizations in each chapter are internal focalizations, fixed focalizations, and focalizations of variables. Based on the stability criteria in the novel text of J.R.R Tolkien's there are two focalizations, namely fixed focalization and focalization of variables. These two focalizations present in each chapter and which are more often present are fixed focalizations that mention the story seen or perceived by a single agent. While the focalization of variables occurs when there is a character that is perceived or seen from events to events into multiple perceptions. By providing a third-party internal focalization and stability with fixed focalization and focalization of variables, the narrator gives an overview of the viewing or observing subject and the object seen or observed so as to produce trust to the reader about the events being told. Third-party internal focalizations are marked by the use of third-person pronouns either as subject, object, or for ownership in the story description (he, his, him, they, their, and them). The first person pronoun (I, my, me) and second person pronoun (you and your) are used only in conversations between characters and character monologues.

Literature in English programs from many non-English. However, there are some problems encountered by language teachers in the area of teaching English through literature. First, there is a small amount of material in a pedagogically designed manner that can be used by language teachers in a language class. Secondly, lack of preparation in the area of literary teaching. Third, a clear objective absence that determines the role of literature in the EFL, many instructors try to include literature in their classes, but they lack background and training in the field.

5. Conclusion

It can be concluded that writing narrative is very important for students. Therefore, using stories in novels is an effective tool that can be adopted by language educators to develop their students' narrative writing and other language skills. It should be noted that essay writing develops other language skills and higher-order thinking skills. Furthermore, reading the story in a novel develops students' imaginative thinking abilities.

Narrative style in the novel text by JRR Tolkien uses several aspects of the builder, including: (1) Narrative style in terms of time consists of: a). the duration of the text, the duration of the plot, and the duration of the story, b). order is chronological with plot structure, c). frequency can be simple singulative and repetition. (2) The narrative style of characterization may be in the form of direct characterization, indirect characterization, and characterization through analogy. (3) The narrative style of the focalization aspect can be in the form of internal third-person omniscience, fixed focalization, and focalization of variables. From the results of this research is recommended as input in the study of narrative theory, especially novel, as one of the teaching materials on the teaching of language and literature in the course of writing.

References

1 

Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. England: University Press, 2002.

2 

Bortolussi, Marisa and Peter Dixon. Psychonarratology: Foundations for the Empirical Study of Literary Response. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

3 

Budd Richard, Atal. Content Analysis of Communication. New York: The Mac Millan Company. 1967.

4 

Culler, Jonathan. Literary Theory: A Very Short Introduction . New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

5 

Collie, J. & S. Slater. (1990). Literature in the Language Classroom: A Resource Book of Ideas and Activities. Cambridge: Cambridge University press.

6 

Emzir. Data Analysis : Qualitative Research Methodology. Jakarta: Rajawali Pers, 2011.

7 

Endraswara, Suwardi. Literary Research Methodology: Epistemology, Models, Theory, and Applications. Yogyakarta: CAPS, 2013.

8 

Esten, Mursal. Literature: Introduction to Theory and History . Bandung: CV Angkasa, 2013.

9 

Gamble, Nikki and Sally Yates. Exploring Children's Literature: Teaching the Language and Reading of Fixtion. London: Paul Chapman Publishing, 2002.

10 

Hagberg, Garry L. and Waiter Jost. A Companion to the Philosophy of Literature . USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2010.

11 

Herman, David. The Cambridge Companion to Narrative . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

12 

Herman, Luc and Bart Vervaeck. Handbook af Narrative Analysis . USA: University of Nebraska Press, 2005.

13 

Hoffman, Michael J. and Patric D. Muphy. Essentials of the Theory of Fiction . United States: Duke University Press, 1993.

14 

Nurgiyantoro, Burhan. Fictional Studies Theory. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 2010.

15 

Simpson, Paul. Stylistics: A Resource Book for Students . London: Routledge, 2004.

16 

Stanton, Robert. Fiction Theory . Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007.

17 

Titscher, Stefan et al., Translator: Abdul Syukur Ibrahim, Text Analysis & Discourse Methods. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2009.

18 

Wellek, Rene and Austin Warren. Theory of Literature. USA, Penguin University Books, 1976.

19 

Budd Richard, Atal. Content Analysis of Communication. New York: The Mac Millan Company. 1967.

FULL TEXT

Statistics

  • Downloads 3
  • Views 10

Navigation

Refbacks



ISSN: 2518-668X