KnE Social Sciences | International Conference on Educational Science and Training (The First ICEST) | pages: 88–104

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1. Introduction

Counselling service is one form of relationship that helps, seek individual/counselee to be able to develop the potential and personal counselee in decision making and the choice to realize an effective life in everyday, productive, and happy. The purpose of counselling can be achieved if the counsellor has a variety of competencies that are used to assist the counselee, so skilled and skilled. Clearly contained in Law Number 20 the Year 2003 on National Education System Article 1 Item 6 states that counsellors are educators, as are teachers, lecturers, guardians, public speaking, tutors, instructors and facilitators. Because counsellors are educators then counselling is education, and counselling services are educational services (Prayitno, 1998)[4].

While counselling services are professional work, meaning work or activities undertaken by a person and become a living income source that requires expertise, skill, or skill that meets certain quality or norm standards and requires professional education. (Law No.14 / 2005 Article 1 Item 4) [5].

Based on the pre-survey that researchers have done on March 9-13, 2015 in three high schools Metro city, researchers get information that there is no teacher guidance and counseling who are graduates of professional education counselor, even there are still many teachers guidance and counseling who are not undergraduate background Guidance and Counseling (S1- guidance and counseling). This shows that not yet fulfilled professional requirements as professional officers in the field of counselling that is not yet fulfilment of skill, skill, or skill that meet certain quality or norm standard and require professional education (Law No.14 Year 2005). In addition to handling student problems through individual counselling services, there is a tendency of guidance and counselling teachers just give advice to students and all problems. This indicates that the underlying skills of counseling teachers have not been mastered by guidance and counseling teachers that is not understood the theories and / or techniques in counseling so that resulted in the inability of teachers guidance and counseling in applying the theory and technique of counseling when helping to eradicate student problem, so that problem handling is not complete.

Seeing the phenomenon when judging from the understanding of professional counselling, then it is very contradictory. Therefore, teachers should be guidance and counselling / School counsellors are teachers who meet the requirements required as professionals, such as the fulfilment of the standard requirements of academic qualification that is a guidance and counselling teacher must be a graduate of Guidance and Counseling and graduated professional education counsellor. (Permendiknas No.28 Year 2007)[11].

If it is allowed to continue, it can have a negative impact on the profession itself, the counselee/student who served, and the public perception. Even more alarming is the occurrence of mall practice counselling. Therefore, good awareness and self-understanding by guidance and counselling teachers are needed, so that they can strive to improve their quality and service quality in the field of counselling so that teachers, guidance and counselling have various competencies required, especially the Minimum Professional Competence or called KUM. Where the main substance is focused on the development of Knowledge Insight Values and Attitude Skills.

Researchers want to examine the professional competence of counsellors in terms of basic counselling skills namely the level of mastery and application of theories and techniques of counselling by teachers guidance and counselling in helping to eradicate student problems through individual counselling services. Researchers focus on the level of theoretical understanding and counselling techniques, the accuracy of selecting an approach to the theory and techniques in accordance with the problems and characteristics counselees (student), how to using theories and techniques in the counselling process. The subjects of the study were all guidance and counselling teachers or teacher Guidance and Counseling officer in high school education unit Country city of Metro.

Research purposes

The purpose of this study is to produce a basic counselling skills module that can be used by guidance and counselling teachers tasking for individual counselling services within me solving students' problems and to avoid malpractice counselling as well as improving the professional competence of guidance and counselling teachers.

Urgency research

Teacher guidance and counselling/ School counsellors are professionals in the field of counselling services to assist in the eradication of problems and/or self-esteem of counselees. Therefore, having basic counselling skills that include understanding and mastery of theory and techniques in the practice of counselling is a necessity for teachers guidance and counselling / School counsellor. But what is teacher guidance and counselling already understand and can apply the theories and techniques of counselling appropriately in the process of individual counselling? This research is very important to do, related to the independence and solving problems of others / counselors and professional organizations, Thus the results of this study can be used as guidance implementation as well as input and consideration for guidance and counseling teachers in order to improve the professional competence especially in individual counseling services and avoid mall practice counseling that can harm the counselee, profession and n teachers guidance and counseling / the counselor itself.

2. Literature Review

Professional teacher guidance and counseling / school counselors

Counselling is one form of relationship that is helpful, the counsellor helps other people/counselee to be able to develop the potential and personal counselee in making decisions and choices to realize effective life in everyday, productive, and happy. Therefore counselling services are directed to assist the development of individuals in school settings and the wider community, it must be organized by professional experts (MoNE, 2004) [1].

Counselling is a professional job, therefore it must be done by a person who has expertise in the field of counselling and should not be done by indiscriminate people. A holder of a profession of Counseling Guidance and Counseling fully master the integrated component of competence according to his profession. Components of competence in the counselling profession include; (c) Specific practical object, (d) altruistic motivation and, (e) Communication and organ of the professional profession (Prayitno, 2009)[3]. Rather than a set of techniques, counselling is a relationship process (James, Stevic and Warner, 1977: 293) [9].

Counselling objectives can be achieved if the counsellor has the various competencies needed to assist the counselee. The competencies that the counsellor must possess include the physical, intellectual, emotional, social and moral aspects (Surya, 2009)[2]. This competency is very important for a counsellor because the counselee comes to the counsellor is to learn and develop the competencies needed to achieve a more effective and happy life. The role of a counsellor is to teach the competence to the counselee, so the more the counsellor's competence, the more likely the counsellor can help the counselee. So is teacher guidance and counselling / School counsellors assigned to provide counselling services in schools, should be guidance and counselling teachers a competent and professional in the field of counselling, so as to assist students in optimal self-development in accordance with the task of its development.

Teacher duties as and obligations of guidance and counselling / School counsellors are assisting students' self-development that includes aspects of personal life, social life, learning, career, family and religious life. In addition a guidance and counseling teacher / Counselors should meet the standards of academic qualifications and counselor competencies described in Permendiknas Number 28 the Year 2007 Article 1 paragraph (1) states that u can be appointed as counsellor, someone required meets the standards of quality cation academic and competence counselor that Be r behavior on national.

The complete figure of competence counsellor includes the k academic and professional competence as s or wholeness. Competence academy is the scientific foundation of the tips process service professional Guidance and Counseling. While competent academic is a san land for the development of professional competencies, which include: (1) a deep understanding counselee in service, (2) to master the runway and framework theoretic Guidance and Counseling, (3) organize service Guidance and counseling that independent, and (4) develop a personal and professionalism counselor on action (Prayitno, 2009)[3].

Urgency module basic counseling skills

Individual counselling service or L-5 is one of the Guidance and Counseling services which have been done by a teacher of guidance and counselling in dealing with student problems at school. But in reality in the implementation of counselling is a lot that is not in accordance with standard operational procedures (SOP), so after counselling, student behaviour is not much changed for the better. In fact, it often leads to new problems that often end up on the return of students to guardian parents. Guidance and Counseling of several factors, among others: (a) educational background, that there are still many teachers Guidance and Counseling officers not from undergraduate counseling guidance, (b) teachers who are assigned to teachers of guidance and counseling less willing to learn more about the to- guidance and counseling, (c) not yet having academic qualification standards (professional education), (d) non-conformity in handling problems in accordance with task and field (Guidance and Counseling).

Service is essentially an action whose nature and direction leads to better, happier conditions for the parties served. In other words, the person being served has the prospect of being better and happier (Prayitno, 2009)[3]. While counselling is a process of assistance from counsellors to clients/counselees based on theories put forward by experts in counselling. Where the theory is formulated based on the practical experience of clients who have been counselled or through research conducted over the years (Taufik, 2009)[6]. This service counselling should focus directly on the development of an effective life of the counselee, which is happy with the basic source of individual conceptualisation of counselees, practical directions and guidance counselling guidelines. School counsellors are challenged to be prepared to respond to student clients along to continuum of problems ranging from relatively minor to serious. Depending on the circumstances, they may be able to help with their help. Locke, Myers and Herr (2001: 294) [10].

To avoid the mall of counselling practice by guidance and counselling teachers / School counsellor, then it is important that teachers are guidance and counselling have guidelines that can be guided and provide technical guidance in the implementation of individual counselling. Where guides are made based on existing theories, and various counselling techniques to uncover the root of the problem counselees accompanied by examples of problems and steps finished without ignoring the phenomenon of the development of student problems in school. Thereby expected teacher guidance and counselling will be more helpful in the practice of counselling services to establish and eradicate the problems of students who are responsible.

In general, the counselling approach is divided into three: a direct approach, non-directive approach and eclectic approach. But the general approach has been further developed by counsellors into 10 specific approaches. Prayitno (2009)[3], describes briefly the 10 theories or approaches as follows:

  • Classical Psychoanalysis Counseling developed by Sigmund Freud wants to bring things that are not realized by the subjects served into his consciousness, in order to me so far he failed to overcome them.

  • Ego counselling developed by Alder, Jung and Fromm. This approach wants to establish an ego identity so that the function of the subjects being served becomes strong.

  • The Counseling of Individual Psychology by Alder, who wants to help the subjects served changes the concept of himself and corrects the wrong perceptions of his environment, and develops new goals to be achieved through new behaviours.

  • Transactional Analysis Counseling developed by Erick Berne, who want to strengthen the role and function of the adult ego (adult) optimally the subject served.

  • Self Counseling (Rogers), who want to help the subjects served has a more mature self (self) to be able to realize themselves (self-actualization).

  • Gestalt Counseling (Perls), which aims to encourage the development of subject behaviours served under Gestalt principles.

  • Behavioural Counseling (Skinner), which aims to encourage the development of subject behaviours served according to the principles of learning and habituation.

  • Reality Counseling (Glasser), which aims to promote the development of subjects served by the 3R: right, responsibility, and reality pillars.

  • Rational-Emotive Counseling (Ellis), which wants to combat the irrational thinking of the subject served and turn it into rational thinking.

  • The Pancawaskita Counseling Approach (Prayitno), which emphasizes the importance of gatra literature on the subjects served. Gatra is something meaningful; what is in the subjects it serves, including its daily behaviour is made meaningful.

In theory, there are also many techniques for individual counselling in both general and specialized techniques, all of which must be mastered by counselling and counselling teachers. Because with the techniques that a counsellor can explore, analyze, interpret and alleviate problems experienced by the counselee.

Handling student problems through individual counseling services

Based on preliminary study results of researchers and information from some students who have implemented integrated field experience program (PPLT) in junior and senior high school level as well as, most of the problems experienced by students in school, how to handle it done with individual counseling service, especially for guidance and counseling teachers which are not given the class hour. While the teacher guidance and counselling which has class hours entered by providing information services only and is classical.

It can be very possible because of the low understanding or mastery of guidance and counselling teachers to the basic skills of counselling services that include an understanding of 10 counselling theories as well as general and specialized mastery of techniques in the counselling process. In addition to theory and counselling techniques especially in the service of individual counselling, a teacher of guidance and counselling also must understand and be able to carry out 8 other services that exist in Guidance and Counseling. According to Prayitno (2009)[3], there are 5 models of approaches in individual counselling services that are pragmatic, dogmatic, syncretic, eclectic and personal.

Reality occurs in the field of guidance and counselling teachers only doing counselling service with pragmatic approach model that is counselling service which only relies on experience without using the theory and technique of counselling. While the basic skills of counselling can be seen from the use of theory, accuracy, proficiency in communicating with general and special techniques at the time of eradicating student problems in the counselling process. Therefore, students who experience problems are only given advice and not explored the root of the real problem, then the relative students repeat their actions and problems are not erased.

3. Research Methods

Research design

The research method used is research and development. According to Borg & Gall in (Sugiyono, 2008) [7] describes research and development or research development in education, is a process used to develop and validate educational products, including procedures and processes, such as learning methods or methods of learning management.

This study aims to develop educational products in the form of basic counselling skills module for individualized counselling practice. Therefore the module development study looks at the validity and practicality of the module (Ida Umami, 2014) [8].

Location and subject research

The location of research is in SHS State as Metro City. Based on the goal to be achieved, make a generalization with a very small error, then in this study was not written population and sample, but the subject of research using saturated sampling technique. In contrast to other sampling methods, the sampling is saturated namely the technique of determining the sample when all members of the population used as a sample (Sugiyono, 2008)[7].

Subjects in this study were all teachers of guidance and counselling / Counselor of the existing school in SHS State as Metro city. This research will collect some data to reveal how exactly the level of counselling skills by guidance and counselling teachers in terms of applying and understanding the theories and techniques of counselling in the eradication of student problems through individual counselling services.

Research design

The steps in this research will be conducted in the following way: research and information collection, planning, preliminary product development, preliminary field testing, main product revision, main field testing, operational product revision, operational field testing, final product revision, and dissemination and implementation. In this research will develop a basic skill counselling module, with the research design stage as follows:

  • Review the library and information about individual counselling practices at school.

  • Planning research development methods on skills modules in basic counselling.

  • Developed basic skills of expert counselling and questionnaires, test practitioners 1 and test of practitioner 2.

  • Expert tests on basic skills counselling module, conducted by three people expert lecturer.

  • Revision of basic skills counselling module.

  • Test of practitioner 1 ie test legibility by ten teachers Guidance and Counseling (in outside of the sample).

  • Revision of basic skills counselling module.

  • The practitioner 2 test, the module's usability test for individualized counselling practices, conducted after counselling practice. This test uses a questionnaire given to guidance and counselling teachers (research subject).

  • Revision of basic skills counselling module.

  • Reporting and implementation.

Data collection method

In accordance with the research step, then the data collection method in this research use:

  • QuestionnaireQuestionnaire for the expert test, questionnaire for practitioner test, and questionnaire for the test of practicality to the student (research subject). Expert test questionnaires are conducted by expert lecturers appointed to validate the teaching module. questionnaires practitioners test is intended to see the legibility of modules by students, this questionnaire was given to five students designated aslegibility testers. And the test of practicality is intended to test how well the module is used for guidance and counselling teachers.

  • ObservationHadi (in Sugiyono, 2008: 203) [7] argues that observation is a complex process, a process composed of various biological and psychological processes. Two of the most important are the processes of observation and memory. In this research, the purpose of observation is to: (a) know the implementation of basic counselling skills in the SM A State of Metro City that has been done and implementation, (b) to know the development of basic counselling skills during the treatment.

  • InterviewFurther data will be processed through simple statistical procedures. In this case, the data obtained from the questionnaire given to the teacher guidance and counselling / School counsellors are quantitative data, while data obtained through interviews and observations are qualitative data.

Data analysis

Data analysis was performed after obtaining test result: expert test, practitioner test and trial to guidance and counselling teacher. The test uses a questionnaire, with a review of the understanding and application of the theory and techniques of counselling with the following aspects:

  • Teacher guidance and counselling already using the theory and approach techniques in the counselling process or not,

  • Level of understanding of the theory and techniques of counselling,

  • True teacher guidance and counselling in choosing a theoretical approach and counselling techniques in accordance with the character and counsel problems,

  • Already a teacher guidance and counselling in using the theories and techniques that have been selected in individual counselling services.

4. Discussion and Result

In this section will be discussed in a row about the results of research that has been achieved, namely: description of the results of the identification of the level of mastery skills counseling counselling, illustrate the problems of teachers BK (Guidance and Counselling) in mastering and understanding the modules they have, indicators and components of the basic skills module counseling that will arranged.

Stage problem analysis

Referring to the selected research design with the ADDIE model, the first step is to analyze the problem and needs. At this stage will be presented the results of identification problems found, namely:

Profile of BK (Guidance and counselling)/ counselor senior high school in metro city

Based on data collection activities that have been done, then for the first data exposure is the profile of teachers BK (Guidance and Counselling) or counsellor SHS State located in Metro city. This data is obtained through observation activities on school documents, as well as interviews with BK (Guidance and Counselling) coordinators in senior high school under study. In detail the data profile teacher BK (Guidance and Counselling) State Senior High School in Metro will be presented as follows table 1.:

Table 1

Profile Teacher BK (Guidance and Counselling) / Counsellor SHS State in Metro City Lampung.


No School Total of Teacher's BK Status
Civil servants Working period Honorary Working period
1 SMA N 1 Metro 6 5 10-25 years 1 2-5 years
2 SMA N 2 Metro 3 3 10-25 years
3 SMA N 3 Metro 3 3 10-25 years
4 SMA N 4 Metro 4 3 10-25 years 1 2-5 years
4 SMA N 5 Metro 3 3 10-25 years
4 SMA N 6 Metro 2 2 5-10 years
Total 21 19 2

Based on the above table is known that teachers BK (Guidance and Counselling) / Counselor SHS State located in the metro city total 21, with 19 Civil Servants and 2 Honorary.

Analysis of basic skill level of teacher counselling BK (Guidance and counselling)/ counselor of SHS state of metro city

Based on questionnaires that have been collected and has been done analysis, then the results are presented as follows:

Table 2

Level of mastery of basic skills of counselling teachers BK (Guidance and Counselling)/ Counselor SHS State of Metro City.


Range of Scores Frequency % Mastery of basic skills level counselling
> 61 3 14,29 Above average
46-61 15 71,42 Average
< 46 3 14,29 Below average

Based on the data analysis above, it is known that the average condition of mastering skill of teacher BK (Guidance and Counseling) / counsellor of SHS State in Metro city is in average condition, that is with frequency 15 people with a percentage of 71,42%. While above average is 14.29% (3 persons), and below average is 14.29% (3 persons) The above data illustrates that in general, the basic skills of the counselor in basic counselling skills are flat the state is an insufficient condition, although it is known there are still in fewer conditions. However, when viewed from the period of work that the majority is in the span of 10-20 years, of course, the conditions are quite categorized is not maximal, not to mention if viewed from the status of teachers BK (Guidance and Counseling)/ Counselor and also the status of schools with status "public school ", This certainly becomes one of the footholds to make capacity building efforts in the implementation of counseling, especially on basic counseling skills.

Map of problems understanding and mastery of basic skills module counselling teachers BK (Guidance and counselling) / counselor SHS state as metro city

Based on the data above, in the category of the ability of teachers / counselors SHS City Metro counseling condition is quite good, but when viewed from the employment, employment status, and also the status of school, of course, the condition is not ideal conditions, where public schools usually become reference and sample for private sector. Therefore, based on the analysis of the above data, the following will present some indicators that become difficult constraints BK (Guidance and Counseling) teachers develop basic counselling skills, in terms of modules that they used to practice.

Table 3

Problem Mastery Module Basic Skills Counseling Teacher BK (Guidance and Counselling)/ Counselor SHS Metro city.


No Indicator frequency of answers
Yes % No %
1 Difficulty understanding the content or material of modules / books / diktat basic counseling skills possessed 18 85,714 3 14,29
2 Difficulty practicing modules / books / basic skills dictates 16 76,19 5 23,81
3 Difficulty understanding basic counseling skills in KDK modules / books / dictates 16 76,19 5 23,81
4 Modules / books / dictates are instructions or guides for the practice of counseling skills 8 38,095 13 61,9
5 Modules / books / dictates along with examples of counseling skills 7 33,333 14 66,67
6 The language and order of sentences in Modules / books / dictates is easy to understand 5 23,81 16 76,19

Based on the data analysis table above, it was found that 85.71% of BK (Guidance and Counselling) / Counselor teachers had difficulties understanding the contents of their basic skills module, 76.19% of the practitioners practice the basic skills module, 76.19 had difficulties to understand the terms in the modules they used, 61.9% stated that there is no instruction module, 66.67% module is difficult to use because it is not accompanied by example, and 76.19% stated that language and sentence structure in module is difficult to understand.To facilitate the interpretation of data, then the data presented in the form table above will be presented in the form of the following histogram:

Figure 1

Map of problems understanding and mastery of basic skills module counselling teachers BK (Guidance and Counselling) / Counselor SHS State as Metro City.

fig-1.jpg

Based on data analysis of basic skills mastery of counselling teachers BK (Guidance and Counselling)/ Counselor of state high school in Metro city, and identification problems mastery of modules that teachers BK (Guidance and Counselling) / Counselors use, then in the analysis phase formulated research findings as follows:

  • Level of mastery of basic skills counseling BK(Guidance and Counselling) / Counseling SHS State Metro City counseling on average is good enough when viewed from the calculation of the score, but if viewed from long service period with experience long enough, the level of mastery of basic skills of counseling is still far from ideal.

  • Less ideally mastery of counsellor skills of State Senior High School in Metro revealed by the module that has been used as a referral of skills improvement is very difficult to master and understood.

Draft design of basic counseling skills module

Referring from the first stage, the analysis phase to identify the problems and needs of the counselor / teacher in the mastery of basic skills of counseling, then in the Design stage (design/design, will be drafted the basic skills skill module counseling. This stage is also known as the design blueprint) Blueprint of the module to be developed is as follows Table 4:

Table 4

Design of the Basic Counseling Skills Module.


No CHAPTER Title CHAPTER Sub CHAPTER
No CHAPTER Title CHAPTER Sub CHAPTER
1 Counselling as a helpful relationship 1. Counselling Concepts
2. Characteristics of helping relationship on counselling
3. Counsellor as a facilitator
4. Basic counselling skills
2 Techniques and stages of counselling 1. Basic techniques of counselling
2. Stages of counselling
3 Attending Skills 1. Counselee acceptance
2. Warmth
3. Openness
4. Positive acceptance and appreciation
5. Seating distance
6. Sitting attitude
7. Eye contact
8. Open call to talk
9. Structuring
4 Problem Exploring Skills 1. Open questions
2. Noting, understanding, and responding (3M)
3. Following the subject (the demands)
4. Minimal Boost
5. Paraphrase and Reflection
6. Skills respond
5 Personalize Skills 1. Personalize the problem
2. Personalize goals
3. Personalize feelings
6 Initiative Developing Skills 1. Goal setting skills
2. Skill helps counselee develop program / alternative solving problem
3. Skill helps counselee to plan a schedule or step solving the problem
4. Planning skills for strengthening
5. Skill builds the commitment of the counselee
7 Skills Ending and assessing Counseling 1. The skills of terminating the counselling interview
2. Skill End or close the case
3. Skills assessing counselling

5. Conclusion

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Based on data obtained through data collection activities, and after conducting an analysis of the collected data, it is concluded as follows:

  • In general, the level of mastery of basic skills of counselling teachers BK (Guidance and Counselling) / Counselor SHS Metro city is in the category enough. Basic counselling skills of BK (Guidance and Counselling)/ Counsellor teachers 71.42% or 15 people scored in the average category. However, when compared to the work period, employment status, and school status (SHS State), the condition is still not ideal.

  • Difficulties for BK (Guidance and Counselling) teachers/ counsellors to master the counselling module they have to improve the capacity of counselling practices identified because:

  • Difficulty understanding the contents of the basic skills module owned by 85.71%

  • Difficulties practised basic skills module of 76.19%

  • Having difficulty understanding term in module equal to 76,19%

  • Stated module there is no instruction of 61.9%

  • The module is difficult to use because it is not accompanied by an example of 66.67%

  • The language and sentence structure of the module is difficult to understand for 76.19%

Acknowledgement

Thanks to Senior High School State in Our Metro City Lampung.

References

1 

Directorate General of Higher Education. (2004). Basic Standardization Counselor Profession. Depdiknas.

2 

Mohamad Surya. (2009). Counselling Psychology. Bandung: Maestro.

3 

Prayitno. (2009). Professional Insights Counseling. Padang: UNP Press.

4 

Prayitno, (1998). Counseling Pancawasita (Eclectic Counseling Framework). Program Guidance and Counseling: FIP IKIP Padang.

5 

Syamsu Yusuf, LN, and A. Juntika Nurihsan. (2012). The Foundation of Guidance and Counselling. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

6 

Taufik. (2009). Counselling Models of Guidance and Counseling. FIP: UNP.

7 

Sugiyono. (2008). Educational Research Methods. Jakarta: ALFABETA.

8 

Ida Umami (2014). Guidance and Counseling In Education. Metro: STAIN Jurai Siwo.

9 

James C. Hansen, Richard R. Stevic and Richard W. Warner, Jr. (1977). Counselling Theory and Process Secon Edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

10 

Locke, Don C., Myers, Jane E., and Herr, Edwin L. (2001). The Handbook of Counselling. UK London: Sage Publications, Inc.

11 

Permendiknas No.28 Year 2007 in Indonesia

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ISSN: 2518-668X