KnE Social Sciences | 3rd UNJ International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training 2018 (3rd ICTVET 2018) | pages: 266–280

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1. Introduction

Every people will go through the stages of development, both the stages of self-development and the stage of family development as part of the family. The family life cycle consists of eight developmental stages, namely the newly married family, childbearing, preschool age, school age, teenage, launching centers, middle-aged parents, aging parents [1]. Every stage of the development has tasks and risks that must be supported and protected, one of them is through a family-friendly area. Family-friendly area is an area that supports people to live, work, career, school, community, live and have a family safely, comfortably and happily. With the existence of a family-friendly area, it is hoped that individuals within it as part of family members can grow and develop as optimally as possible and are expected to be a family welfare.

The Site of Batujaya is a cultural heritage located in the village of Segaran, Batujaya district, Karawang Regency, West Java. Batujaya Temple is on the middle of rice fields and close to residential areas. In the Law of the Republic Indonesia Number 11 on 2010 concerning Cultural Heritage explains that cultural heritage is a nation's cultural wealth as a form of thought and behavior of human life which is important for understanding and developing history, science, knowledge and culture in community life, nation and state so that it needs to be conserved and managed appropriately through protection, development and utilization efforts in order to advance national culture for the greatest prosperity of the people [2]. From this thought, it is clear that cultural heritage has an important meaning for the lives of the surrounding communities, especially those related to inherited traditional values.

Family life in areas with cultural heritage or historical heritage must be realized with traditional themes handed down from generation to generation. Patterns of interaction that occur during stage of development, the process of transfer of values between generations and how families can adjust to the changes that occur are interesting things to be studied. Through classifications based on family typologies, families can be predicted and characterized by family norms, guided by family values and goals, and also possible to achieve goals [3].

Most family typology instruments lead to family communication. Family communication is defined as “how information is exchanged within a family” [4]. Specifically, positive communication has been defined as “sending clear and congruent messages, expressing empathy, providing supportive comments, and demonstrating effective problem-solving skills” [5]. Communication is often used to help families organize their actions into predictable forms of behavior [6]. Several important considerations in assessing the quality of communication among family members include whether the information is directed at the family member for whom the information is intended, whether the information is well-defined instead of vague, and whether the important information is communicated directly to the intended individual as opposed to hidden within other messages [4]. Individuals often learn how to cope with and appropriately handle interpersonal conflict within their original family setting [7]. Basic communication skills are modeled by family members, and the importance of these skills continues throughout adulthood [7].

2. Methods and Equipment

The method used of this study is survey method, where data collection was distributed questionnaires to 100 families using simple random sampling technique. The study was conducted in 4 hamlets in Segaran Village, Batujaya District, Karawang Regency, West Java.

The data collected includes: family characteristics (education level, work type, and family income) and indicators of family typology. A family typology instrument developed by researchers, in which the concept is refers to McCubbin and Thomson (1987). Data were collected through interviews and coaching of enumerators, preparation of field protocols and creation of code books as data input and data cleaning. Typology data is processed by entering scores and percentage of typology indicators. Data were analyzed descriptively, nest structure test and relationship test. Typology data is processed using SPSS. Family typology data were analyzed descriptively based on family development stage.

3. Results

Characteristics of respondents

Respondents divided into 3 groups based on the stage of family development. In this study, the stage of family analyzed are a family of school age (school age family), families with teenager (teenage family) and family with the young adults (launching family).

Table 1

Distribution of sample based on education level.


LF TF SF
Education Husband Wife Husband Wife Husband Wife
% % % % % %
No School 36.8 26.3 25 18.8 26.1 17.4
Elementary 44.8 65.8 50 59.4 52.2 69.6
Junior High School 18.4 5.3 15.6 15.6 17.4 13
Senior High School 0 2.6 9.4 3.1 4.3 0
Collage 0 0 0 3.1 0 0
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Notes: LF (Launching Family); TF (Teenage Family); and SF (School-age Family).

Respondents based on type of work shown in Table 2 indicate that most wives do not work, the husband while the majority (36.8%) worked as a trader (LF), laborers (43.7% in the TF) and (30.4% in SF).

Table 2

Distribution of sample based on type of work.


LF TF SF
Type of Work Husband Wife Husband Wife Husband Wife
% % % % % %
Non-working 13.2 55.2 6.3 78.1 13.1 73.9
Traders 36.8 23.7 21.9 9.4 21.7 8.7
Employee 2.7 0 0 0 0 0
Teacher 0 0 0 0 0 0
Worker 10.5 7.9 43.7 3.1 30.4 4.3
Farmers 31.5 7.9 12.5 6.3 21.7 4.3
Breeder 0 0 0 0 0 0
Planters 0 0 0 0 0 0
Others 5.3 5.3 15.6 3.1 13.1 8.7
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Notes: LF (Launching Family); TF (Teenage Family); and SF (School-age Family).

Respondents based on family income shown in Table 3 show that most wives do not have income because they do not work, while husbands are mostly (47.4% in LF), (46.9% in TF) and (52.1% in SF) have income between Rp. 1,000,000.00–Rp. 3,000,000.00.

Table 3

Distribution of sample based on family income.


LF TF SF
Income Husband Wife Husband Wife Husband Wife
% % % % % %
0 13.2 55.2 6.3 78.1 13.1 73.9
< 1.000.000 31.5 34.2 28.1 15.6 34.8 17.4
1.000.000– 3.000.000 47.4 7.9 46.9 6.3 52.1 8.7
3.000.000– 6.000.000 7.9 0 15.6 0 0 0
> 6.000.000 0 2.7 3.1 0 0 0
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Notes: LF (Launching Family); TF (Teenage Family); and SF (School-age Family).

Typology of respondent family

Family hardiness

Family hardiness or family toughness is defined as the strength and resilience of a family that arises from a strong feeling as a family in controlling events and difficulties in life, seeing life as meaningful, prioritizing involvement in family activities, and having a commitment to learning, exploring new things and challenges and new experiences.

Kobasa (1979) explains control as the belief that one is able to control or influence the events of one's experience. An internal, rather than external, locus of control allows one to recognize one's ability to participate or "handle things" rather than seeing oneself as the victim of circumstance.

Table 4

Distribution of sample based on family hardiness items.


N o. Family Hardiness Item LF TF SF
(%)
1 Have a principle when faced with a big problem 94.7 90.6 87
2 Able to withstand big problems 100 96.9 91.3
3 Work with other family members to solve problems 100 93.8 95.7
4 Believe that something will work better if done together 97.4 96.9 100
5 Happy to do new activities with family 92.1 87.5 95.7
6 Listen to every problem, hurt and concern of to each family member 92.1 87.5 100
7 Support each other to try new experiences 100 93.8 100
8 Prefer to stay at home rather than go out with friends 89.5 90.6 95.7
9 Feeling life feels boring and meaningless 100 100 95.7
10 Believing in life is not a coincidence and luck 100 100 91.3

Family coherence

Family coherence is defined as a fundamental thing in coping strategies in the management of family problems. The family coherence indicator is operationalized as acceptance of the pressure that befalls families, loyalty, pride, confidence, trust, respect, attention, and sharing values in tense family conditions.

Table 5

Distribution of sample based on family coherence items.


N o. Family Coherence Item LF TF SF
(%)
1 Share feelings and sadness with close friends 81.6 78.1 82.6
2 Already loyal to the family 97.4 100 100
3 Sharing values and trust with family members as a form of family unity 100 96.9 100
4 Has been able to respect other family members 97.4 100 100
5 Defining family problems positively 97.4 96.9 100
6 Have a pride as part of the family 100 93.8 100
7 It has been able to accept stressful conditions as a part of family life 89.5 87.5 100
8 Believe in God's intervention in family life 100 100 100
9 Trust each other with other family members 100 93.8 100
10 Shows compassion and understanding to other family members 100 96.9 100
Notes: LF (Launching Family); TF (Teenage Family); SF (School-Age Family).

Family bonding

Family bonding or family emotional attachment is defined as a degree that measures emotional attachment and the meaning of family togetherness and integration between family members. Family bonding indicators can be described as openness to discuss problems, feel close to other family members, have the desire to stay connected with family members and others, and engage in family togetherness as part of the family as a whole.

Table 6

Distribution of sample based on family bonding items.


N o. Item family bonding LF TF SF
(%)
1 Feeling very easy to discuss problems with other people outside the family compared to one's own family 100 93.8 91.3
2 Family members feel closer to other people outside the family compared to their own family 100 96.9 100
3 Placing a family in first place and agreeing to put personal interests in second place 100 96.9 100
4 Families have a relatively long time to do activities with family 89.5 78.1 87
5 Feeling the need to confirm all family members before making a big decision 94.7 87.5 87
6 Feeling difficult to be your own mother and very dependent on the family 57.9 31.3 52.2
7 Feeling difficult to think of something that can be done by the family as a form of togetherness 50 43.8 43.5
8 Family members stay away from each other while at home 97.4 93.8 95.7
9 It is important that the prospective spouse of a family member get approval from all family members 92.1 96.9 87
10 Harboring problems affecting families to avoid family conflict and tension 63.2 46.9 69.6

Family flexibility

Family flexibility or family flexibility is defined as the family's ability to change rules, restrictions, and roles to accommodate changes in pressure from within and outside the family. Family flexibility indicators can be described as ownership of open communication patterns, wisdom to compromise add experience in accountable changes between family members, and active participation of family members in decision making

Table 7

Distribution of sample based on family flexibility items.


N o. Family Flexibility Items LF TF SF
(%)
1 Family members are free to express what they want 94.7 87.5 95.7
2 The ideas and suggestions of family members are always respected and valued at 94.7 93.8 95.7
3 Can change family rules, if you have the right reason 86.8 87.5 82.6
4 The family receives input/new ways of resolving the problem 86.8 87.5 95.7
5 Suggestions for solving problems from children are heard and followed 86.8 90.6 91.3
6 Able to face problems with confidence and be able to change rules to solve problems without creating new problems 92.1 93.8 95.7
7 When there is a problem, the family conducts deliberations 94.7 90.6 100
8 Every family member may know what other family members do 73.7 75 91.3
9 Every family member takes part in big decisions in the family 78.9 87.5 87
10 Family members share tasks and roles to help other family members who feel distressed 81.6 90.6 87
Notes: LF (Launching Family); TF (Teenage Family); SF (School-age Family).

Family times and routines

Family times and routines or family time and routines are defined as family behaviors and practices as an option to improve and maintain adaptation efforts and the formation of family routines into a predictable lifestyle. Family times and routines indicators emphasize the importance of routines to increase togetherness parents with children, husbands with wives, between family members, and with other extended families.

Table 8

Sample distribution based on family times and routines items.


N o. Family Times and Routines Items L T S
(%)
1 Parents have time to just talk with their children 94.7 96.9 100
2 Parents have free time to do hobbies or exercise together 63.2 56.3 60.9
3 Children have special routine activities before going to sleep 60.5 56.3 60.9
4 Families do dinner together at the same time at any time 63.2 62.5 65.2
5 Family related (telephone, SMS, letter) with other extended families at least once a week 68.4 71.9 69.6
6 Parents are used to discuss new rules for children with all family members 71.1 75 73.9
7 Every family member does homework according to the division of labor 81.6 87.5 82.6
8 Families make regular visits to other extended family homes 92.1 84.4 82.6
9 Children have time to play regularly with their peers 100 93.8 100
10 Families are accustomed to expressing affection and attention to each other at all times 97.4 96.9 100

Valuing family times and routines

Family times and routines or meaning of time and family routines are defined as the meaning of the importance of the family regarding family values on time and routine. Indicators of valuing family times and routines are degrees to measure family trust in practical values designed to advance family units and predict family habits.

Table 9

Distribution of sample based on family times and routines valuation items.


N o. The Valuing Family Times and Routines Items L T S
(%)
1 Parents have time to talk with their children 97.4 96.9 100
2 Parents have free time to do hobbies or exercise together 73.7 71.9 78.3
3 Children have special routine activities before going to sleep 60.5 62.5 56.5
4 Families do dinner together at the same time at any time 86.8 75 82.6
5 Family related (telephone, SMS, letter) with other extended families at least once a week 78.9 81.3 69.6
6 Parents are used to discuss new rules for children with all family 76.3 81.3 69.6
members
7 Every family member does homework according to the division of labor 89.5 93.8 78.3
8 Families make regular visits to extended family homes 94.7 87.5 87
9 Children have regular playing time with their peers 92.1 90.6 91.3
10 Families are accustomed to expressing affection and attention to each other at any time 100 96.9 100
Notes: L (Launching Family); T (Teenage Family); and S (School-age Family).

Family tradition

Family tradition is defined as family behavior and practices that provide choices for families to be active or passive in improving and maintaining efforts in maintaining trust and values so that they can continue to be passed on from generation to generation.

Table 10

Distribution of sample based on family tradition items.


N o. Family Tradition Items LF TF SF
(%)
1 Decorate the house with its 84.2 84.4 69.9
2 Giving gifts and sharing stories 60.5 43.8 52.2
3 Go to a place to gather (e.g. grandfather's house) 92.1 78.1 95.7
4 Having a special ceremony place 34.2 40.6 56.5
5 Has a special type of wedding/death ceremony (religion, customs, personal) 81.6 65.6 69.6
6 There is a special ritual in the wedding/death ceremony 44.7 40.6 47.8
7 Children participated 71.1 56.3 60.9
8 There is a special place to do religious events 76.3 75 56.5
9 There is a special place that is used as a place for family events 86.8 84.4 73.9
10 There are special activities in family events 86.8 90.6 82.6
Notes: LF (Launching Family); TF (Teenage Family); and SF (School-age Family).

Family celebration

Family celebration or family celebration is defined as behavior and family practices that are active or passive in explaining and highlighting the surroundings as an effort to show concern. The family celebration indicator includes a couple's birthday, a special day, a big holiday which is emphasized as an inseparable part of the family celebration to unite families

Table 11

Distribution of sample based on family celebration items.


N o. Item Family Celebration LF TF SF
(%)
1 Decorate the house and its contents 97.4 96.9 87
2 Giving gifts and sharing stories 23.7 15.6 21.7
3 Go to a place to gather (e.g. grandfather's house) 0 0 8.7
4 Having a special ceremony place 0 0 4.3
5 Having a special type of wedding/death ceremony (religion, customs, personal) 100 100 95.7
6 There is a special ritual in the wedding/death ceremony 42.1 65.6 60.9
7 Children participate 7.9 18.8 4.3
8 There is a special place to do religious events 2.7 0 0
9 There is a special place that is used as the venue for the family event 36.8 25 13
10 There are special activities in family events 44.7 43.8 21.7
Notes: LF (Launching Family); TF (Teenage Family); and SF (School-age Family).

Family type analysis based on family stages

Launching family

Table 12

Family Type Analysis (Launching Family).


Dimensions of Family Typology Family Typological Indicators Family Type Percentage (%)
1. Regenerative Family Family Hardiness Family Coherence Vulnerable Secure Durable Regenerative - - - 100
2. Resilient Family Family Bonding Family Flexibility Fragile Bonded Pliant Resilient - 7.9 - 92.1
3. Rhythmic Family Family Times And Routines Valuing Family Times And Routines Unpatterned Intentional Structural Rhythmic 2.6 5.3 - 92.1
4. Traditionalistic Family Family Tradition Family Celebration Situational Traditionalistic Celebratory Ritualistic 23.7 68.4 - 7.9

Teenage family

Table 13

Family Type Analysis (Teenage Family).


Dimensions of Family Typology Family Typological Indicators Family Type Percentage (%)
1. Regenerative Family Family Hardiness Family Coherence Vulnerable Secure Durable Regenerative 3.1 - - 96.9
2. Resilient Family Family Bonding Family Flexibility Fragile Bonded Pliant Resilient 3.1 3.1 - 93.8
3. Rhythmic Family Family Times And Routines Valuing Family Times And Routines Unpatterned Intentional Structural Rhythmic 9.4 6.3 - 84.3
4. Traditionalistic Family Family Tradition Family Celebration Situational Traditionalistic Celebratory Ritualistic 28.1 56.2 - 15.7

School-age family

Table 14

Family Type Analysis (School-age Family).


Dimensions of Family Type Indicators of Family Type Family Type Percentage (%)
1. Regenerative Family Family Hardiness Family Coherence Vulnerable Secure Durable Regenerative - - - 100
2. Resilient Family Family Bonding Family Flexibility Fragile Bonded Pliant Resilient - 4.3 4.3 91.4
3. Rhythmic Family Family Times and Routines Valuing Family Times and Routines Unpatterned Intentional Structural Rhythmic 4.3 - - 95.7
4. Traditionalistic Family Family Tradition Family Celebration Situational Traditionalistic Celebratory Ritualistic 39.2 56.5 - 4.3

4. Discussion

McCubbin, Thompson, and Pirner's research results in 1986 showed families with a good typological dimension would have a positive pattern of adaptation to crisis conditions, experience marital satisfaction, community satisfaction, and overall be a prosperous family [3]. Family typology is one component in the TDouble ABCX stress management model McCubbin and Patterson (1981). Family typology is defined as a device of basic attributes in a family system that has certain characteristics and describes a system of family characteristics in assessing, operating, and or behave. Through classifications based on family typologies, families can be predicted and seen patterns that are reinforced by family rules and norms, guided by family values and goals, and play an important role in explaining family behavior when dealing with stressful family life and family transitions [3].

The results of the research on 3 stages of family development in Segaran Village, Batujaya Subdistrict, Karawang Regency, West Java showed that in the Regenerative Family typology dimensions, the three stages of the family that were covered (launching, teenage and school age family) mostly had regenerative family types, only 1 family at the teenage family stage is vulnerable. Families with high family hardiness and high family coherence are called regenerative families or developing families. This family shows that families have coping strategies in solving problems with trust, respect, and management of emotional tension and stability. This family has strong faith as capital to overcome problems, accept stressful conditions in life, accept difficulties and work together to solve problems. In addition, this family has good control and control as a basic ability to endure it. This family shows that the family has a purpose, has a plan, has value in every effort, and feel that life is very meaningful. In general, regenerative family is active in reasonable control, and when faced with difficulties they also care, are loyal and tolerate and are patient in facing difficulties [3].

Families that are vulnerable, have low family coherence and low family hardiness. This family shows that the way families deal with problems by expressing anger, showing lack of respect for each other, blaming others or other family members, and also showing lack of attention, lack of understanding, lack of pride, lack of loyalty and acceptance of family difficulties. In addition, the vulnerable family shows a low sense of purpose, low in meaning in life, and low in appreciating things.

In the typology dimension of the Resilient Family, the results showed that most (above 90%) families in the three stages of development had a family type resilient family, and there were some who were bonded and pliant family (under 8%). Resilient Family is indicated by the family bonding indicator and high family flexibility. This family shows that this family has great power in the ability to change in certain situations. This family shows that the family can say what they want, as input for a big decision, can form rules and practices in the family, and can compromise. The family also has experience in being responsible as part of a family, this family will try new ways to solve problems. This family also has great internal strength that binds this family. These families have a dependency on one another to understand and support one another, feel close to each other, be proud of being tied to other family members, and able to decide something easily as a family unit [3].

Families with low family flexibility but have a high family bonding are called bonded families or families that are mutually bound. This family shows dependence on one another to understand and support each other, feel close to each other, proud to be tied to other family members, and able to decide something easily as a family unit. Families with low family bonding and high family flexibility are called pliant families or soft families. This family shows that the strength of this family is very large to make a change. This family shows that every family member can say what they want as input in the decision who are big, can form rules and practices in the family, and can compromise. The family also has experience in being responsible as part of a family, this family will try new ways to solve problems.

In the Rhythmic Family typology dimension, the results showed that most (above 80%) families in the three stages of development had a family type rhythmic family, and there were some who had intentional and unpatterned family types (below 10%). Rhythmic Family is indicated by indicators of family times and routines and the high valuing family times and routines. Families with this type show development in predictable activities and routines. Family members are involved in family activities and routines and are concerned with understanding the importance of activities and family routines. A good pattern in an effort to fulfill rhythmic development tasks with the aim of interpreting a sense of togetherness and habits that are well predicted.

Intentional families have little interest in family times and routines, but have a high interest in the assessment of the importance of family times and routines. These families have a good assessment of the importance of family times and routines, but this family does not implement it in real practice. These families do not have the ability to demonstrate expression of the understanding of the importance of family times and routines, while unpatterned families or families are not patterned, have a life with little attention in family times and routines and have limited value in understanding and understanding the importance of family times and routines implanted in family life.

In the family typology dimension of Traditionalistic Family, the results showed that most (above 55%) families in these three stages of development had a traditionalistic family type, and there were some who had ritualistic types. There are also those who have a relatively high percentage of situational family, which is above 25%. The traditional family is shown by family tradition indicators and low family celebration. This family shows a low life of attention to celebrations something special, but has great trust in the tradition. which was passed down from generation to generation.

Families with low celebrations and traditions are called situational families or families that change. This family shows family life that has little attention to tradition and celebration. This family develops in life with family routines and activities that experience change from situation to situation and lack of attention traditions and celebrations or things that are actually needed to be celebrated. Families with high celebrations and traditions are referred to as ritualistic families or families that are obedient to adapt. This family has high attention to traditions and celebrations in the family. This family has attention to the value and importance of a family celebration of events and events in the family so that good conditions always occur in family life. Traditionalistic family types are found most often in the family stage of launching family than teenage family or school age family. showing changes in the times led to changes in the values held in the family. Families who used to hold traditional values, will gradually begin to abandon their ancestral traditions and move to new traditions that enter their social communities.

5. Conclusion

Research on family typology in Segaran Village, Segaran Village family, Batujaya Subdistrict, Karawang District, West Java shows that the dominant family type in the three stages of the family studied (launching, teenage and school age family) is a family type of regenerative family (in dimension 1), resilient family (in dimension 2), rhythmic family (in dimension 3) and traditionalistic family (in dimension 4).

Funding

This work is supported by a research program in 2018, Faculty of Engineering, Jakarta State University under Grant No. [088a/5.FT/PP/V/2018].

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank their colleague for their contribution and support to the research. They are also thankful to all the reviewers who gave their valuable inputs to the manuscript and helped in completing the paper.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

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