Every people will go through the stages of development, both the stages of self-development and the stage of family development as part of the family. The family life cycle consists of eight developmental stages, namely the newly married family, childbearing, preschool age, school age, teenage, launching centers, middle-aged parents, aging parents . Every stage of the development has tasks and risks that must be supported and protected, one of them is through a family-friendly area. Family-friendly area is an area that supports people to live, work, career, school, community, live and have a family safely, comfortably and happily. With the existence of a family-friendly area, it is hoped that individuals within it as part of family members can grow and develop as optimally as possible and are expected to be a family welfare.
The Site of Batujaya is a cultural heritage located in the village of Segaran, Batujaya district, Karawang Regency, West Java. Batujaya Temple is on the middle of rice fields and close to residential areas. In the Law of the Republic Indonesia Number 11 on 2010 concerning Cultural Heritage explains that cultural heritage is a nation's cultural wealth as a form of thought and behavior of human life which is important for understanding and developing history, science, knowledge and culture in community life, nation and state so that it needs to be conserved and managed appropriately through protection, development and utilization efforts in order to advance national culture for the greatest prosperity of the people . From this thought, it is clear that cultural heritage has an important meaning for the lives of the surrounding communities, especially those related to inherited traditional values.
Family life in areas with cultural heritage or historical heritage must be realized with traditional themes handed down from generation to generation. Patterns of interaction that occur during stage of development, the process of transfer of values between generations and how families can adjust to the changes that occur are interesting things to be studied. Through classifications based on family typologies, families can be predicted and characterized by family norms, guided by family values and goals, and also possible to achieve goals .
Most family typology instruments lead to family communication. Family communication is defined as “how information is exchanged within a family” . Specifically, positive communication has been defined as “sending clear and congruent messages, expressing empathy, providing supportive comments, and demonstrating effective problem-solving skills” . Communication is often used to help families organize their actions into predictable forms of behavior . Several important considerations in assessing the quality of communication among family members include whether the information is directed at the family member for whom the information is intended, whether the information is well-defined instead of vague, and whether the important information is communicated directly to the intended individual as opposed to hidden within other messages . Individuals often learn how to cope with and appropriately handle interpersonal conflict within their original family setting . Basic communication skills are modeled by family members, and the importance of these skills continues throughout adulthood .
2. Methods and Equipment
The method used of this study is survey method, where data collection was distributed questionnaires to 100 families using simple random sampling technique. The study was conducted in 4 hamlets in Segaran Village, Batujaya District, Karawang Regency, West Java.
The data collected includes: family characteristics (education level, work type, and family income) and indicators of family typology. A family typology instrument developed by researchers, in which the concept is refers to McCubbin and Thomson (1987). Data were collected through interviews and coaching of enumerators, preparation of field protocols and creation of code books as data input and data cleaning. Typology data is processed by entering scores and percentage of typology indicators. Data were analyzed descriptively, nest structure test and relationship test. Typology data is processed using SPSS. Family typology data were analyzed descriptively based on family development stage.
Characteristics of respondents
Respondents divided into 3 groups based on the stage of family development. In this study, the stage of family analyzed are a family of school age (school age family), families with teenager (teenage family) and family with the young adults (launching family).
Respondents based on type of work shown in Table 2 indicate that most wives do not work, the husband while the majority (36.8%) worked as a trader (LF), laborers (43.7% in the TF) and (30.4% in SF).
Respondents based on family income shown in Table 3 show that most wives do not have income because they do not work, while husbands are mostly (47.4% in LF), (46.9% in TF) and (52.1% in SF) have income between Rp. 1,000,000.00–Rp. 3,000,000.00.
Typology of respondent family
Family hardiness or family toughness is defined as the strength and resilience of a family that arises from a strong feeling as a family in controlling events and difficulties in life, seeing life as meaningful, prioritizing involvement in family activities, and having a commitment to learning, exploring new things and challenges and new experiences.
Kobasa (1979) explains control as the belief that one is able to control or influence the events of one's experience. An internal, rather than external, locus of control allows one to recognize one's ability to participate or "handle things" rather than seeing oneself as the victim of circumstance.
Family coherence is defined as a fundamental thing in coping strategies in the management of family problems. The family coherence indicator is operationalized as acceptance of the pressure that befalls families, loyalty, pride, confidence, trust, respect, attention, and sharing values in tense family conditions.
Family bonding or family emotional attachment is defined as a degree that measures emotional attachment and the meaning of family togetherness and integration between family members. Family bonding indicators can be described as openness to discuss problems, feel close to other family members, have the desire to stay connected with family members and others, and engage in family togetherness as part of the family as a whole.
Family flexibility or family flexibility is defined as the family's ability to change rules, restrictions, and roles to accommodate changes in pressure from within and outside the family. Family flexibility indicators can be described as ownership of open communication patterns, wisdom to compromise add experience in accountable changes between family members, and active participation of family members in decision making
Family times and routines
Family times and routines or family time and routines are defined as family behaviors and practices as an option to improve and maintain adaptation efforts and the formation of family routines into a predictable lifestyle. Family times and routines indicators emphasize the importance of routines to increase togetherness parents with children, husbands with wives, between family members, and with other extended families.
Valuing family times and routines
Family times and routines or meaning of time and family routines are defined as the meaning of the importance of the family regarding family values on time and routine. Indicators of valuing family times and routines are degrees to measure family trust in practical values designed to advance family units and predict family habits.
Family tradition is defined as family behavior and practices that provide choices for families to be active or passive in improving and maintaining efforts in maintaining trust and values so that they can continue to be passed on from generation to generation.
Family celebration or family celebration is defined as behavior and family practices that are active or passive in explaining and highlighting the surroundings as an effort to show concern. The family celebration indicator includes a couple's birthday, a special day, a big holiday which is emphasized as an inseparable part of the family celebration to unite families
Family type analysis based on family stages
McCubbin, Thompson, and Pirner's research results in 1986 showed families with a good typological dimension would have a positive pattern of adaptation to crisis conditions, experience marital satisfaction, community satisfaction, and overall be a prosperous family . Family typology is one component in the TDouble ABCX stress management model McCubbin and Patterson (1981). Family typology is defined as a device of basic attributes in a family system that has certain characteristics and describes a system of family characteristics in assessing, operating, and or behave. Through classifications based on family typologies, families can be predicted and seen patterns that are reinforced by family rules and norms, guided by family values and goals, and play an important role in explaining family behavior when dealing with stressful family life and family transitions .
The results of the research on 3 stages of family development in Segaran Village, Batujaya Subdistrict, Karawang Regency, West Java showed that in the Regenerative Family typology dimensions, the three stages of the family that were covered (launching, teenage and school age family) mostly had regenerative family types, only 1 family at the teenage family stage is vulnerable. Families with high family hardiness and high family coherence are called regenerative families or developing families. This family shows that families have coping strategies in solving problems with trust, respect, and management of emotional tension and stability. This family has strong faith as capital to overcome problems, accept stressful conditions in life, accept difficulties and work together to solve problems. In addition, this family has good control and control as a basic ability to endure it. This family shows that the family has a purpose, has a plan, has value in every effort, and feel that life is very meaningful. In general, regenerative family is active in reasonable control, and when faced with difficulties they also care, are loyal and tolerate and are patient in facing difficulties .
Families that are vulnerable, have low family coherence and low family hardiness. This family shows that the way families deal with problems by expressing anger, showing lack of respect for each other, blaming others or other family members, and also showing lack of attention, lack of understanding, lack of pride, lack of loyalty and acceptance of family difficulties. In addition, the vulnerable family shows a low sense of purpose, low in meaning in life, and low in appreciating things.
In the typology dimension of the Resilient Family, the results showed that most (above 90%) families in the three stages of development had a family type resilient family, and there were some who were bonded and pliant family (under 8%). Resilient Family is indicated by the family bonding indicator and high family flexibility. This family shows that this family has great power in the ability to change in certain situations. This family shows that the family can say what they want, as input for a big decision, can form rules and practices in the family, and can compromise. The family also has experience in being responsible as part of a family, this family will try new ways to solve problems. This family also has great internal strength that binds this family. These families have a dependency on one another to understand and support one another, feel close to each other, be proud of being tied to other family members, and able to decide something easily as a family unit .
Families with low family flexibility but have a high family bonding are called bonded families or families that are mutually bound. This family shows dependence on one another to understand and support each other, feel close to each other, proud to be tied to other family members, and able to decide something easily as a family unit. Families with low family bonding and high family flexibility are called pliant families or soft families. This family shows that the strength of this family is very large to make a change. This family shows that every family member can say what they want as input in the decision who are big, can form rules and practices in the family, and can compromise. The family also has experience in being responsible as part of a family, this family will try new ways to solve problems.
In the Rhythmic Family typology dimension, the results showed that most (above 80%) families in the three stages of development had a family type rhythmic family, and there were some who had intentional and unpatterned family types (below 10%). Rhythmic Family is indicated by indicators of family times and routines and the high valuing family times and routines. Families with this type show development in predictable activities and routines. Family members are involved in family activities and routines and are concerned with understanding the importance of activities and family routines. A good pattern in an effort to fulfill rhythmic development tasks with the aim of interpreting a sense of togetherness and habits that are well predicted.
Intentional families have little interest in family times and routines, but have a high interest in the assessment of the importance of family times and routines. These families have a good assessment of the importance of family times and routines, but this family does not implement it in real practice. These families do not have the ability to demonstrate expression of the understanding of the importance of family times and routines, while unpatterned families or families are not patterned, have a life with little attention in family times and routines and have limited value in understanding and understanding the importance of family times and routines implanted in family life.
In the family typology dimension of Traditionalistic Family, the results showed that most (above 55%) families in these three stages of development had a traditionalistic family type, and there were some who had ritualistic types. There are also those who have a relatively high percentage of situational family, which is above 25%. The traditional family is shown by family tradition indicators and low family celebration. This family shows a low life of attention to celebrations something special, but has great trust in the tradition. which was passed down from generation to generation.
Families with low celebrations and traditions are called situational families or families that change. This family shows family life that has little attention to tradition and celebration. This family develops in life with family routines and activities that experience change from situation to situation and lack of attention traditions and celebrations or things that are actually needed to be celebrated. Families with high celebrations and traditions are referred to as ritualistic families or families that are obedient to adapt. This family has high attention to traditions and celebrations in the family. This family has attention to the value and importance of a family celebration of events and events in the family so that good conditions always occur in family life. Traditionalistic family types are found most often in the family stage of launching family than teenage family or school age family. showing changes in the times led to changes in the values held in the family. Families who used to hold traditional values, will gradually begin to abandon their ancestral traditions and move to new traditions that enter their social communities.
Research on family typology in Segaran Village, Segaran Village family, Batujaya Subdistrict, Karawang District, West Java shows that the dominant family type in the three stages of the family studied (launching, teenage and school age family) is a family type of regenerative family (in dimension 1), resilient family (in dimension 2), rhythmic family (in dimension 3) and traditionalistic family (in dimension 4).
This work is supported by a research program in 2018, Faculty of Engineering, Jakarta State University under Grant No. [088a/5.FT/PP/V/2018].
The authors would like to thank their colleague for their contribution and support to the research. They are also thankful to all the reviewers who gave their valuable inputs to the manuscript and helped in completing the paper.