KnE Social Sciences | 3rd UNJ International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training 2018 (3rd ICTVET 2018) | pages: 138–149

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1. Introduction

Conducting evaluation is one of the important aspects in the learning process. The evaluation is a process that is done through the steps of planning, designing instruments and collection information through some evidence that shows the competencies achievement of the student (Alimuddin, 2014). Evaluation of learning result is conducted by the educator (Teachers, in this case), Education Installation and The Government (Uno & Satria K, 2014). Evaluation of learning results field that is done by teacher covers competencies of knowledge, behavior, and skill (Direktorat Pembinaan SMK, 2017).

Behavior evaluation is an activity designed to measure the student behavior as the result of learning activity (Majid, 2014). Competency evaluation is conducted to measure cognitive achievement of student in regards to what has been taught by teacher in the learning process (Suciyati, Nurhaida, & Vitoria, 2017). Skill Competency evaluation is evaluation that demands the student to demonstrate certain competency that can be done with project evaluation, portfolio project, and performance evaluation (Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 2013).

Performance evaluation is done by observing the students activity in doing something (Sunarti & Selly, 2014). Performance evaluation is able to draw the increase result of students in the activity of observation, asking question, reasoning, and building network (Direktorat Pembinaan SMK, 2017). Because of that, performance assessment is very relevant to scientific approach in learning process in Vocational High School.

Vocational High School (SMK) is one of the several forms of formal education in Indonesia. From the various competencies available in Vocational High School one of them is Hotel Accommodation. Hotel Accommodation is a competency fields that focuses of skills in the field of mastering information and abilities about hotel accommodation, managing and organization of Hotel.

The Subjects in Competency of Hotel Accommodation is divided into 2 kinds, which are Normative-Adaptive Subject and Productive Subject. Normative-Adaptive Subject is a non-vocational lesson which is taught to all students as complementary productive ability. Productive Subject is a vocation lesson taught to student according to their competencies subject. Productive Subjects that is in the Competency of Hotel Accommodation are Laundry, Front Office and Housekeeping.

Primary material in Housekeeping Subjects covers public area hotel, cleaning tools in public area, object and impurity type, cleaning material public area, also procedure of cleaning public area Machine and Manual. Basic Competencies in procedure of cleaning public area material requires students to explain the procedure of cleaning public area manually and conducting cleaning manually according to the hotel standard operational procedure.

The learning process of cleaning public area manually is conducted by interactive and practice group method. One of the practices that is done in the learning procedure of public area manually is the practice of manual polishing which inside it includes the practice of metal polishing, wood polishing and leather polishing. Manual Polishing Practice is a practice to handle the care of things or furniture made from woods, metal, and skin. The students have to conduct practice manual in accordance to SOP.

Manual polishing practice evaluation technique is done with performance assessment technique. Performance Assessment is suitable to be used in evaluating the competencies achievement according to working students. (Uno & Satria K, 2014). Performance Assessment requires student to do the task by implementing the knowledge and skills of the learning subjects (Nitko & Susan M, 2007). In conducting the performance assessment, students are given task and then has to show their skills in completing the task, then given score according to quality indicator visual measured by performance assessment tools (Sudria, 2009).

Assessment tools in conducting practice has to be designed so it could unfold the level of achievement that has been achieved by student in practice conduct (Lestari, 2016). The design of assessment practice tools in manual polishing has to note the aspect of specific important skills and affecting the final practice result (Direktorat Pembinaan SMK, 2017). Those skill aspects cover the phases of preparation, process, and practice result.

According to the result of researcher's observation, the problem lies in the assessment tools in manual polishing practice that is used is only available in the format that scores the aspect of preparation, process and practice result. The evaluation format has not feature success indicator with the details that refers to Hotel SOP. The success Indicator has to be included specifically so the ability of students can be correctly measured so it could show the success of student in conducting the practice of manual polishing..

In relations to those problems, the performance assessment tools has to be designed in such a way that the result can be held accountable (Majid, 2014). Researcher felt motivated to conduct research about "Designing Performance Assessment of Manual Polishing Practice in Vocational High school."

2. Method

The Method used in this research is Research and Development with ADDIE Model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation). Although, the design of this performance assessment only went through 3 phases of ADDIE model which are Analysis, Design and Development. The implementation and implementation is not conducted because the design of this performance analysis tools goes until the activity of validation test by expert and practitioner. The participants in this research are validator and conducting Expert Judgement. Validator in this research consists of three person, one is an academician in the field of assessment, one is an academician in the field of Housekeeping, and one practitioners in the field of Hotels. Research instruments that was used in this research is Interview Guidelines, Observation Guidelines, and Validation Sheet. The procedure of research is activity phase to finish the research. The steps of this research are Preparation phase, the conducting phase, and finishing phase. Data Analysis is that was performed in this research is processing the result of validation through Expert Judgement and interpreting validation data result.

3. Result

The Findings in this research refers to the data acquired through analyzing the needs of Assessment manual polish practice, designing performance assessment, and conducting Expert Judgement.

Analysis of performance assessment tools in manual polishing practice

Data in relation to the result of analysis of the needs in Performance Assessment in Manual Polishing Practice is acquired from the result of observation of the students of Hotel Accommodation and interview with the teachers of Housekeeping subject.

The result of analyzing the first needs, in regards to conducting manual polishing practice.

  • Phase of preparing manual polishing practice us preparing the completeness of uniform and self-hygiene.

  • The process of conducting manual polishing consists of wood polishing, metal polishing, and leather polishing. The step to conduct has to be performed exactly according to Hotel SOP.

  • The expected result after conducting manual polish is the condition of object that has been cleaned becomes very polished, clean form dust and no trace of fingerprints.

The Result of second analysis needs is the process of assessing manual polishing practice. The teacher assesses the manual polishing practice using format assessment in the form of table. Inside those table contains columns of aspects that would be assessed. Aspect that will be assessed is preparation, process and practice result.

According to the interview with the teacher of housekeeping subject, filling this column is by adding check mark ( ) on the provided column. The check mark means that the student has conducted the preparation phase and the process of manual polishing practice. The column is filled with the mark of students in accordance to object condition. On the assessment format, the aspects that has been marked has not yet equipped with the indicator of success that refers to Hotel SOP. Even though, the aspect that is assessed needs to be equipped with the success indicator that refers to Hotel SOP so that the students' ability in conducting the manual polishing practice can be correctly measured and the result can be held accountable.

The design of performance assessment tools of manual polishing practice

The Design of Performance Assessment Tools of Manual Polishing Practice Covers:

The form of designed tools

The form of assessment that has been designed is in the form of Check List. The use of check list is made easy for teacher to assess the ability of students in big amount of numbers.

Success criteria on the assessment tools

The Success Criteria used in the assessment tools is "Yes" and "No" with the score of "Yes" = 1 and Score of "No" = 0.

Assessed aspect in the assessment tools

Assessed aspect in manual polishing practice covers preparation, conduct, and practice result described in detail according to SOP.

Processing the result of practice scores in assessment tools

The processing of practice score result in the performance assessment is consisted of assessment of preparing phase, conducting, and result of manual polishing practice. The result will be processed using formula so the final result of manual polishing practice can be acquired.

Deciding whether the students are competent or no can be seen from the final manual polishing practice result with the deciding criteria as follows:

Scores 100-90: can be decided as competent

Scores 89-75: can be decided as competent enough

Scores < 74: can be decided as not competent

The advantages of assessment design

The Advantages of performance assessment in manual polishing practice are:

  • Success indicator in every aspect that will be assessed in the performance assessment is designed according to Hotel SOP.

  • Easier for teacher to observe and measure the ability of student in practice

  • The Students receives scores according to their own capability in conducting the cleaning process of manual polishing.

Disadvantages of the design of performance assessment tools in manual polishing practice are:

  • The Teacher needs a long time in assessing the students so the process needs assistance from the other teachers.

  • Deciding the criteria result of manual polishing practice is decided with KKM which is 75. If the students score is under the number of 75 they are stated as incompetent. So, the students need to take remedial.

Validation result of performance assessment in the manual polishing practice

The Validation result of performance in the manual polishing acquires average scores of (91.26%) which means the design of performance assessment in manual polishing practice is very worthy to be used in assessing manual polishing practice in Housekeeping subject.

4. Discussion

The Discussion that will be assessed is the attempt from researcher in connecting the collected data and supported by concept that is relevant with the problem that is being researched. The Discussion of research covers the analysis of the needs of performance assessment, the design of performance assessment, and the validation result of performance assessment in the manual polishing tools practice by the experts.

Analysis of needs in performance assessment tools in manual polishing practice

In relations to the analysis result of performance analysis, it can be found that the assessment process is not yet using the performance assessment tools that refer to Hotel SOP. This finding is the cause of the needs in having the performance assessment.

Every aspect scored in the assessment has to explain the success indicator in detail so the ability of students can be measured and the result can be held accountable. Ekawatiningsih (2015) explains that assessment have a very important role in deciding the success of learning process. Because of that, the assessment in conducting the practice has to be design so it could unfold the level of success that has been accomplished by the students in the practice (Lestari, 2016).

Aspect that is assessed in the assessment tools covers assessing the preparation phase, conducting and practice result described in detail according to SOP. The aforementioned statement is also in accordance to Nasution, Neni & Isma (2016) that the practice result of student covers three aspects, those are preparation, conduct, and practice result.

The design of performance assessment of manual polishing practice

The Design of performance analysis tools covers:

The form of designed assessment tools

The form of performance assessment is designed in the form of check list. This check list can be used in the observation of performance test from the students (Basuki & Hariyanto, 2016).

This performance assessment tools is designed in the form of check list because it is easy to use especially knowing the amount of student of Hotel Accommodation in vocational school is quite many. Nur (2015) explains that check list is more practical when used to facing subject in greater amount.

Filling the performance assessment tools in the manual polishing practice is to add ( ) in the provided criteria column. Asrul (2015) explain that performance assessment using check list, the students receive their scores if their mastery of certain ability happens and can be observed by the teacher.

Success criteria in assessment

Success Criteria that is used in this performance assessment tools is "Yes" and "No." Success Criteria "Yes" means receive score 1 and success criteria "No" receives 0 score (Rusilowati, 2014). Success criteria "Yes" means that the students has done the task that is in the indicator column achievement. Contrarily, Success criteria "No" means that students has not done the task that is in the achievement column indicator

Scored aspect in assessment

The assessment aspect in performance assessment tools in the manual polishing practice is decided by identifying the steps that will influence the practice result. This is in accordance to the explanation of Direktorat Pembinaan SMK (2017) where the steps has to be paid attention to in conducting performance assessment which is identifying the important steps that will affect the output. Because of that assessment of manual polishing practice covers the preparation, conducting and practice result. Assessment of practice result covers three aspect which is preparation, conduct, and practice result (Nasution, Neni, & Isma, 2016).

Processing the resulting score in the assessment

Processing the scores results in assessment tools is differentiated according to aspect scored in the manual polishing practice which are preparation phase, conducting phase, and result of manual polishing practice.

Deciding the score criteria is decided in accordance to the KKM in vocational school which are:

Score 75: Competent Score 74: Not Competent.

The advantages of performance assessment in the manual polishing practice, are as follows:

  • Success indicator in every aspect that will be scored in assessment is designed according to hotel SOP. The Hotel SOP is the standard in performance assessment in the manual polishing practice so the students doing manual polishing is in accordance to the industry which is hotel. Organizational assessment directs to the achievement of competencies that has been agreed on between internal party (School) and external party (Industry), so the competencies of students is approved by the industry (Rohaeni & Jubaedah, 2013).

  • Making it easier for teacher to observe and assess the students during the process of manual polishing, in accordance with the assessment that can help teacher in observing the process that is demonstrated by the students (Wulan, 2010).

  • The students receive the scores according to their ability in conducting the process of manual polishing, the students receive scores if the criteria of certain competency mastery is able to be observed by the teacher and if not able, then the students won't receive scores (Rusilowati, 2014).

Disadvantages of assessment tools

The disadvantages of performance assessment in the manual polishing practice:

  • 4.2.6.1. The teacher need a lot of time to scores the students one by one because of it, the process requires assistance from another teacher. In accordance to that Wulan (2010) explains that the disadvantages if performance assessment is that it time consuming in assessing students.

  • 4.2.6.2. Deciding the criteria result of manual polishing practice is decided with KKM which is 75. If the students score is under the number of 75 they are stated as incompetent. So, the students need to take remedial (Ekawatiningsih, 2015).

Validation results of performance assessment tools in manual polishing practice

The Validation result of performance in the manual polishing acquires average scores of (91.26%) which means the design of performance assessment in manual polishing practice is very worthy to be used in assessing manual polishing practice in Housekeeping Subjects. The accomplishment of the criteria is acquired from the validation of experts which covers:

  • Aspect of the completeness and terms of the performance assessment that is validated covers, terms of substance, construction, and language.

  • Aspect of assessing the validated practice covers three aspects, preparation, conducting, and practice result.

  • Processing aspect of scores result of manual polishing practice that has been validated covers the formula of assessing manual polishing practice and deciding the result criteria of manual polishing practice

5. Conclusion

Conclusion of this chapter is made with the observation of research purpose, managing result data and discussing the researches which are:

Analysis result of the needs of performance assessment in manual polishing practice

  • Manual polishing practice needs to be assessed using the that refers to SOP.

  • Aspect that is assessed in the Performance Assessment in Manual Polishing Practice has to be explained in detail so that the ability of students in conducting manual polishing can be measured and the result can be held accountable.

Design result of performance assessment in manual polishing practice, which are:

  • The form of Performance Assessment in Manual Polishing Practice designed as check list.

  • Success Criteria inside the Performance Assessment in Manual Polishing Practice are Competent (K) achieving 1 score or not competent (BK) achieving 0 score.

  • Aspect of assessment described in detail refers to Operational Standard Procedure. Aspect of assessing covers the preparation, conduct, and manual polishing practice result.

  • Processing the scores result practice in the assessment is based on the school assessment terms.

The result of Performance Assessment in Manual Polishing Practice is on the criteria of very worthy. The accomplishment of those criteria is achieved from the validation that consist of performance assessment rule, terms of performance assessment rule aspect, and the aspect of conducting assessment practice and the processing of scores in manual polishing practice.

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