KnE Social Sciences | 3rd UNJ International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training 2018 (3rd ICTVET 2018) | pages: 80–91

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1. Introduction

Language is not an unreal object that can only be learnt but it is a real thing since it is used by human beings every day. It plays an important role in human life since it is a means of communication among people. As a main means of communication in this globalization era, English should be mastered actively both in writing and speaking. As one of the most important world languages, English is not only for the academic needs of the students, lecturers or researchers but also for the jobseekers, workers, business people, entrepreneurs, government officials and society members as well. As a part of Manado State Polytechnic internal stakeholders, the students of Tourism Department hope to master English not only for the sake of good grades in English subject but also for having dependable communication skills in order to get good jobs both in domestic and foreign scales. In this case, the graduates of Manado State Polytechnic are facing competition with those of other universities who are also looking for jobs. The researchers' long teaching experience shows that every year only four to six Tourism Department's graduates who can fluently speak English. Of the 24 to 30 students in a class this number is only about 10 to 20 percent. This is mainly caused by inadequate time for individual speaking practice since the time scheduled or allocated for English subject is only four – six hour/ weekly for the 24 to 30 students. This lack of time for speaking practice makes the students diffident to communicate in English with their friends or other people around them, especially foreigners. This is a serious problem for Tourism Department's graduates considering that their jobs will involve a lot of English skills. To solve this problem, the researchers applied multiplication method to increase the number of active speakers among the graduates of Tourism Department every graduation. By using this method, the researchers trained 12 students for 5 months to be trainers for friends or juniors where each of the young trainers trained three students under the guidance of the researchers. This research is the application of Multiplication method in which these twelve trained students conducted the same training for their thirty six juniors.Based on the background above, the formulation of problem is: How is the application of Multiplication Method in developing the students' English speaking skills and abilities ?According to [1] application is an action carried out both individually and in groups with a view to achieving the objectives that have been formulated while [2] defines application as practicing and implementing. In line with this, [3] views application as a way that is done to reach the goal. Another definition is given by [4] which considers application as the actions carried out by individuals or groups directed at achieving goals that have been formulated. Based on the definitions, we can conclude that application involves some elements, namely: actions, ways, executors both individuals and groups and planned or formulated goals. In order to accomplish a successful application, there must be correct actions done by competent executors using effective ways to achieve correct and carefully planned goals. In the teaching of English as a means of communication, the teacher has a central role. He or She provides the students not only with a set of patterns but also oral exercises that involve 2 or more parties.[5] states that “communication the act of conveying from one entity or group to another through mutually understood signs, symbols and semiotic rules.”From the definition above, it is clear that the teaching of English as a means of communication is meant to teach the learners to understand and interact one another both in the spoken form and in the written form. One is said to be successful in communicating when he or she is able to express what he or she feels and thinks with the meaningful utterances or expressions or when he or she is able to understand what is expressed by someone in a meaningful way. A communication takes place when there is a sending of message from someone to another one which is understood by the receiver as it is meant by the sender. In teaching and learning activities, the teacher and the learner communicate about a material by using language. “Teaching is a process of giving the students experience in creative understanding [6]. It means that teaching is not only meant for delivering to the learners things to understand but more importantly also for giving them opportunities to use them in meaningful contexts and situations. Therefore, teaching should involve the learners in the activities for using things that they learn. Another definition about teaching is given by [7] “Teaching is showing or helping someone how to do something, provide with knowledge, causing to know or understand”. In Language teaching, the teacher not only explains the rules in order that the learners know or understand the grammatical rules, but also gives them topics about language functions such as introducing someone, telephoning, requesting, interrupting, thanking, forgiving, apologizing, commanding, inviting, greeting, reporting, parting, etc. And more importantly, learning a language is an activity to help the learners use the language being learnt using various language functions. In relation to this [8] states” The ultimate goal of language teaching is to provide the learners with the skills in listening, speaking, reading and writing. In journal of Education & Practice [9] concluded that to help the learners develop efficient communication in speaking, the instructor can use activities that combine language and communication input. Speaking is one of the four language skills.[10] calls it as “ the ability to express oneself in life situations or the ability to express the sequence of ideas fluently”. It means that it is through speaking that we can express ideas and feelings directly. [11] states that the majority of foreign students who learn English are especially interested in speaking the language. In line with this, [12] says that speaking is a productive skill that requires the learners to spontaneously retrieve sounds, word forms, word arrangements and vocabulary that will express what they want convey in unexpected situations. Speaking is a complex process which comprises linguistic aspects such as the ability to produce correct sounds, correct grammar and also adequate vocabulary as well as language functions for certain situations. This is important considering that speaking also involves unpredictable things. Natural conversations automatically flow out of the speaker's mouth, not learned like poems that the listener does not always easily anticipate the speaker's expressions. To anticipate such sudden situations, one should master both linguistic aspects and language functions as mentioned before. To develop speaking skills, it is important to remember that learning a language is not the same as teaching a language. Learning a language means being able to use it; understand communicate and think like what we do in our first language. Two important things in learning English are individual treatment and daily practice. This means that speaking practice is done every day and every participant experiences the practice individually. Teaching a language means guiding the learners in their journey to understanding, communicating and thinking in other languages.[13] Studied about language learning strategies to develop speaking skills employed by different levels of students namely: High middle and low achieving students concludes that high achiever students speaking skills was better than those of the middle and low achievers [14].Multiplication is defined by [15] as “an act of increasing the number or amount of something”. In this research, multiplication is used as a method to increase the number of students who can communicate fluently and actively in English. The process of multiplication is divided into two phases. The first phase, the researcher communicated regularly with the 12 students every day individually for 30 minutes per group of four. These trained students are called English Group I. Every group was scheduled to meet every day (from Monday to Friday); The first group was from 7.15am to 7.45am (before the first subject starts), the second group was from 10.15 – to 10.45 (during the first break time) and the third group was from 12.25 to 12.55 (during the second break) or after the last subject. This process was done in 100 days or about 5 months. Later, these 12 students were assigned to train three students chosen from their classmates or their juniors where the researchers guided and monitored all the small groups on different days. This process is expected to continue to multiply the number of active English speakers in Tourism Department and finally an English speaking community is formed.

Figure 1

Research Roadmap. The Following Is The Research Road Map.

fig-1.jpg

In 2000, the researchers conducted an independent research entitled: Using games and songs in teaching English at Sekolah Pembantu Penilik Hygiene (SPPH) Manado, with a conclusion that the students were very highly motivated in learning English when using games and songs for developing speaking skills. Experiments for speaking skills development were also done in 2013, 2014 and 2015 with some students by direct private conversation face to face or by telephone calls by the researcher and the results were very significant in terms and quality. In 2016, the researchers conducted literature study on teaching materials for development of English speaking skills. In 2017, the researchers completed the teaching materials for the development of the students' speaking skills through Multiplication method and core group formation in “100 days in English program. In 2018, the researchers conducted implementation of students speaking skills development through Multiplication method. The students who became the objects of experiments were successful in English debates, job training in Singapore and Malaysia, proposal seminars in English, final examination in English, short courses in some American Universities as a part of polytechnic's cooperation with foreign countries in the field of education. But in terms of quantity, the results achieved by this way were still so small due to some limitations such as time and fund needed in the learning process.

2. Research Methodology

The method used in this research is qualitative method. According to [16], qualitative research a research which is meant to understand the phenomena of what is experienced by the subject of research, for instance: behavior, perception, motivation or holistic actions by describing in words in natural special contexts using various scientific methods.

Aims of research

General aim

Based on the formulation of problem as stated in chapter 1, the general aim of this research is to apply the Multiplication method in developing the student speaking skills.

Specific aims

  • To know how the application of Multiplication Method is in developing the students' English speaking skills and abilities.

  • To know what the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities in Multiplication method application.

Benefit of research

  • Academic benefit: Theoretically, the application of the results of this research is expected to enable the students to ask, answer, discuss, present topics and even explain about information accessed from various media using English and they are expected to adapt themselves with the advances of science and technology.

  • Practical benefit;

Location of research

Location of research is purposively chosen based on certain considerations and the location chosen for this research is Tourism Department of Manado State Polytechnic.

Type and sources of data

Type of data used in research

  • Qualitative data: Not numerical data which give information that can be concluded like the socio – cultural potentials of the students at Tourism Department of Manado State Polytechnic.

  • Quantitative data: Numerical data that can be concluded such as the number of all students of Tourism Department, the number of English lecturers and many others.

Sources of data

  • Primary Data: Data which are directly obtained from the respondents, in this case, the students who joined the Development of students' speaking ability in Tourism Department and all people involved in this research.

  • Secondary Data: Data obtained from other parties, not from the first hand sources but from the reference books and teaching materials, journals, newspaper and magazine.

Sampling techniques

The sampling technique used is purposive sampling, that is samples are chosen based on certain criteria: students who wanted to participate in this research considering discipline and the length of time needed. Academic achievement was proved by the test results of pre- research. [17] states that in qualitative research the sample is chosen due to their ability to give information. Samples can be things, events, humans and situations. A researcher collects data based on natural observation of situations. [17] state that the main sources of data in qualitative research are actions, words and additional things such as documents and others.

Techniques of collecting data

In this research, the techniques used for collecting the data were free guided interview (a combination of free interview and guided interview, observation (observation of each actively related to the data required in the research and documentation (collecting various printed data related to the research).

Instrument of research

The instruments used in this research were interview using interview guide, systematic observation using media for observing the activities considered related to the data collection,questionnaire, a set of questions for the people who were competent in this research and documentation containing data from the previous works.

Method of data analysis

The analysis used in this research is descriptive qualitative analysis that gives interpretation of data and information obtained to make them more interesting in their presentation. To test the effectiveness of speaking skills development through multiplication method, anova test was used.

3. Results

Results of field research

Manado State Polytechnic consists of some departments namely: Civil Engineering Department,Mechanical Engineering Department, ElectricalEngineering Department, Account ting Department, Business Administration Department, and Tourism Department.Tourism Department has 4 study program, ie: D-IV Hotel Management (Applied S1 Hotel Management),D-III Underwater Ecotourism, D-III Tourism and D-III Tour and Travel Business. Of these 4 study programs, D-IV Hotel management study program was chosen for the experiment because it has more students and longer study time.

4. Discussion

From the results of the pre-test and post-test of the experience group, it is known that the speaking skills of the students joining the program using Multiplication method significantly increased as can be seen from the following table:

Table 1

Pre-Test and Post –Test Results of The Experimental Combined Groups.


No Name Pre Test Post Test
1 B1 65 94
2 B2 65 92
3 B3 63 96
4 B4 64 98
5 B5 64 88
6 B6 64 85
7 B7 65 86
8 B8 65 86
9 B9 67 98
10 B10 66 85
11 B11 65 98
12 B12 63 88
13 B13 63 84
14 B14 64 93
15 B15 64 84
16 B16 63 84
17 B17 62 86
18 B18 62 88
19 B19 65 86
20 B20 65 85
21 B21 64 85
22 B22 64 86
23 B23 65 87
24 B24 62 87
25 B25 62 90
26 B26 67 83
27 B27 62 83
28 B28 62 86
29 B29 63 85
30 B30 65 88
31 B31 63 86
32 B32 65 86
33 B33 66 87
34 B34 67 87
35 B35 65 83
36 B36 65 86

From the table above, we can see that after participating in this program, the students made significant progress in speaking English as proved by their results of the post test.

For the comparison, the following is the pre-test and post test result of the control group.

Table 2

Pre-Test and Post-Test Result of The Control Group.


No Name Pre Test Post Test
1 C1 63 67
2 C2 65 68
3 C3 63 66
4 C4 67 75
5 C5 64 68
6 C6 64 67
7 C7 65 66
8 C8 65 69
9 C9 67 73
10 C10 66 69
11 C11 65 68
12 C12 63 68
13 C13 63 64
14 C14 64 67
15 C15 64 68
16 C16 63 64
17 C17 62 65
18 C18 62 65
19 C19 65 66
20 C20 65 75
21 C21 64 65
22 C22 64 66
23 C23 65 67
24 C24 62 67
25 C25 62 70
26 C26 67 76
27 C27 62 65
28 C28 62 66
29 C29 63 65
30 C30 65 68
31 C31 63 66
32 C32 65 66
33 C33 66 67
34 C34 67 70
35 C35 65 73
36 C36 65 69

From the calculation of correlation, it is shown that there is a correlation as great as 0.786 rounded to 0,79 which means that English training using Multiplication method very well correlates with the participants' progress in speaking English.

5. Conclusion

Based on the previous chapters, the following conclusion can be drawn:

  • Two key factors of leaning speaking English successfully are ample time for continuous practice (daily practice) and individual treatment for every participant that is involved in the speaking practice.

  • Multiplication method is very effective in developing the students' speaking ability and in transferring the skills from students to students that ultimately result in the multiplication of the number of English speakers in Tourism Department that makes it possible to establish a speaking English community in the department.

  • There is a strong correlation between variable X (Multiplication Method Application) and variable Y (Development of Student Speaking Ability). The data analysis shows that there is a correlation of 0,786 (rounded to 0,79) which falls into the category of strong correlation.

Funding

The authors highly appreciate the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education especially Directorate of Research and Community Service for funding this research.

Acknowledgement

Sincere thanks are rendered to the Director of Manado State Polytechnic, Ir Evert N. Slat,MT and the Head Of Research and Community Service Centre of Manado State Polytechnic, Dr. Tineke Saroinsong,SST.M.Eng. for giving them the opportunity to do research. Special thanks are also extended to the reviewers for their valuable suggestions in improving the manuscript.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare

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