KnE Social Sciences | 3rd UNJ International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training 2018 (3rd ICTVET 2018) | pages: 39–52

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1. Introduction

Indonesia is an archipelago. Seventeen thousand more large and small islands stretch from Sabang in the west to Merauke on the east end. Geographically, the islands in Indonesia are scattered and separated by oceans and straits. The spread of the island makes the Indonesian nation has a variety of ethnic groups which also produce a variety of languages, cultures, customs and habits, even religion and belief. It is not wrong if the slogan of the Indonesian people is Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, different but still one.

However, if every citizen who inhabits the territory of the Republic of Indonesia has less awareness of the diversity of his nation, the national stability that has been built will also be damaged. Without awareness of diversity, without respecting and respecting different individuals and groups, interpersonal and intergroup conflicts will emerge. The community will be easily divided by hatred and prejudice simply because they do not know and understand the diversity that is owned by their nation.

As part of the international world, Indonesia also cooperates with various countries in the world. Indonesia is also involved in global development and change. The consequence is that the Indonesian people are forced to accept various global influences in all fields of life: economics, politics, language, culture, ideology, and even lifestyle. If it is not addressed wisely, the global influence will also influence national stability.

Based on this, the Indonesian nation faces two threats related to national stability. The first is the diversity that is owned by the Indonesian nation as an archipelago. The second is the global influence that comes as a result of the opening of the Indonesian state in world cooperation and activities. Therefore, the ability to understand diversity, accept differences, be able to adapt, and respond to diversity wisely becomes absolute. Literacy on cultural issues and citizenship is a skill that should be owned by all Indonesian citizens in the 21st century.

Indonesia has diversity in terms of ethnicity, language, culture, customs and habits, even religion and belief. In addition, as part of the global world, Indonesia also has cultural influences from various countries as a result of the cooperation relationships that have been built. As a result, the existing diversity brought about by each ethnic group in Indonesia is becoming increasingly complex with the influx of global influences.

The ability to understand the diversity and responsibility of citizens as part of a nation is a skill that should be owned by every individual in the 21st century. Therefore, important cultural literacy and citizenship are given at the family, school and community level. Cultural literacy and citizenship not only save and develop national culture, but also build Indonesian national identity in the midst of global society.

Indonesia lags behind in the field of literacy compared to other ASEAN countries such as Singapore and Malaysia. Missing literacy includes literacy, financial literacy, cultural literacy, and technology literacy. This lag is a reality that cannot be denied and needs to be resolved immediately. Some survey results put Indonesia at the bottom of the literacy field. Literacy culture in Indonesia ranked 57th out of 65 countries [1]. Similar survey results are shown based on the UNESCO statistical data survey (2005) That out of a total of 61 countries, Indonesia is ranked 60 with a low literacy level that puts Indonesia's reading position 0.001% meaning that from 1,000 people there is only 1 person who has a reading interest

Some experts explain the factors causing low literacy. There are factors that can influence literacy, namely intelligence, gender, motor development, physical condition, physical health, environment, differences in family social status, including parental involvement [2]. A similar opinion which explained that children's interest in reading had a strong relationship with the way mothers used to read books [3]. In addition, to do "home literacy", parents and teachers must be directly involved in order to improve the literacy skills of first-year children in elementary school [4]. Fun home activities created by parents and parent businesses have a positive effect on developing children's literacy. Based on the opinion of the three experts it is known that all three mentioned family literacy factors as a cause of weak information literacy in adolescents.

Segaran Village is one of the villages where Batujaya Temple is located in Karawang District, West Java, Indonesia. Even though it is located in Batujaya Temple, cultural literacy in general in the community is still lacking. Therefore, it is necessary to ascertain how the process of literacy in the family so that efforts can be developed to develop family literacy in order to develop cultural literacy in the communities around Batujaya Temple. This research was conducted on the title of family literacy mapping to develop family literacy in order to develop a culture of literacy in families in Batujaya Temple Area, Karawang District.

The main problem of this research is how the family literacy map and cultural literacy map on the family in Batujaya Temple Area, Karawang District. The main problems are then formulated in specific research questions as follows: (1) how is the family literacy description in families in Segaran Village, Batujaya Temple Area, Karawang District; and (2) how is the description of cultural literacy in families in Segaran Village, Batujaya Temple Area, Karawang District. This study aims to determine how the family literacy and cultural literacy maps in families in the Batujaya Temple Area, Karawang District. More specifically, this study aims to: (1) find out the description of family literacy in families in Segaran Village, Batujaya Temple Area, Karawang District; and (2) knowing the description of cultural literacy in families in Segaran Village, Batujaya Temple Area, Karawang District.

Child literacy development has begun at baby age. At the age of 5 years, children begin to listening and understand a few words. Exposure of literacy also considered to influence the development of a child's literacy in the future. Previous research has shown that the development of literacy in children influence academic success and the development of their competency in adulthood [5]. In addition, children who do not developed their literacy skills tend to experience dropouts during their school years [6]. The child's early development in language skills and literacy has also been a strong predictor of academic success and future children's reading ability [7].

Family has a very important role in developing literacy and children's language skills [8] Previous studies have suggested that there is a correlation between family attachment and child's language development and the child's academic success in school [9] Level of mother's literacy was the one of strong predictor influencing children's literacy and language skills at the beginning of its development [7]. Parents who often give exposure to home literacy to children are considered as a good method in developing children's literacy skills. In addition, the availability of books and other sources of literacy in the home is also a predictor that contributes of family literacy. study found that in low-socioeconomic status family with ownership of books at home which contributed little to the frequency of family members at home [10]. In Contrast, children who have many books and parents who are active in developing literacy at home can provide a positive influence in building a good climate of literacy and involvement between children and parents [11].

Family literacy itself can be described as a form of family literacy training in an effort to support the development of literacy in children [12]. Family literacy which is now widely adopted as a community-based intervention program is also considered as inclusiveness which is more than a traditional form of parenting promotion because it specifically supports the increase in members' literacy skills [13]. Meanwhile, family literacy define as an effort to practice literacy in the family including the process of transferring language knowledge and abilities from parents to children [14]. Family literacy reflect into a more specific definition that is the development and use of family literacy skills in daily life such as the use of language in daily work, the attention of parents to children's education and the use of literacy to maintain the relationship between parents and child [15]. These definitions provide an important point that the development and improvement of literacy in the family must be a habit and stimulus that is consistent with the internalization of values in the family.

The emergence of the problem of low literacy in the family also encourages many programs to increase literacy in the family-based community [16]. The circle literacy model is a model that is often used in literacy improvement programs in families [11]. The basic concept is that children who have low literacy skills must have low parents in their literacy abilities. Therefore, the concept of a literacy circle encourages parents to develop their literacy in the home so as to improve the development of their children's literacy abilities. The program for improving family literacy skills can begin with parents exchanging reading resources when their children enter the kindergarten level. Previous studies have shown a correlation between the number of books at home and the frequency of children to read [17]. Therefore, parents has important roles to encourage their children's literacy skills starting from increased reading activity from themselves. Family is the main focus for intervention [17]. In line, ecological system theory explains that human development occurs when there is interaction in a context such as school, home, or workplace [17]. Fundamentally, Bronfenbrenner theory proposed also states that an intervention program focused on the family can maximize family life and parental facilities in improving the development of children's abilities. In addition, Bronfenbrenner also identifies that neighbors also have an important role in children's development at home. The study by Kohen et al. also found that there was a link between the role of neighbors and an increase in children's literacy at home [18]. Other studies also found that fathers have a role that is also important in the success of increasing literacy in children in the family [19]. Therefore, a program to improve children's literacy skills based on the family community can focus intervention on the role variables of parents and neighbors.

The program of increasing literacy in families does have an impact on the development of language and children's literacy. Family literacy programs are able to build family hardiness to provide space for discussion and knowledge sharing with schools [20]. Meanwhile, the provision of family literacy improvement programs are able to increase the duration of time parents read books with their children [21]. In addition, family literacy programs are able to provide a good process for positive and warm behavior by mothers when discussing readings to their children [22]. However, the literacy program also has limitations including the background of the family's social economic status. Previous studies found that low family socioeconomic status provides dynamics in developing children's literacy skills [23]. In contrast, other studies show that even though parents have low and marginal education, they will try to help their children in terms of improving education so that it contributes to increased children's literacy [24]. However, external factors such as technological development also now make parents have to be able to provide other options in developing digital child-based literacy [25]. This must be an important limitation and recommendation to build effective and efficient interventions to change behavior as needed.

Cultural literacy is the ability to understand and behave toward Indonesian culture as a national identity [26]. Cultural literacy can be measured based on the following indicators: (1) number and variety of reading material for cultural literacy owned by the family; (2) frequency of reading material for cultural literacy in the family every day; (3) number of cultural literacy readings by family members; (4) number of applicative and impacted cultural literacy training on families; (5) number of cultural activities followed by family members; (6) the level of family visits to places of cultural value (traditional houses, museums, palaces, etc.); (7) the level of family understanding of cultural values; (8) number of cultural activities followed by family members; and (9) number of cultural products owned by the family. In practice, cultural literacy is guided by the following principles.

Culture as a thinking nature through language and behavior

Regional languages and diverse behaviors become cultural assets owned by the Indonesian people. Culture as a mind through language and behavior means culture becomes a soul in language and behavior produced by a society. Regional languages and diverse behaviors become cultural assets owned by the Indonesian people. For example, through expressions in Javanese language, swinging on a sun boon, we know the philosophy of life that humans must be able to protect their environment. The phrase not only has a philosophical meaning, but also implies that human behavior is part of a culture.

Art as a cultural product

Art is one form of culture produced by a society. Indonesia as a large island nation certainly produces various forms of art from various regions with bring cultural characteristics from their respective regions. Various forms of art produced by each region in Indonesia must be introduced to the community, especially the younger generation, so that they are not deprived of their cultural roots and lose their national identity.

The aim of strengthening the culture of cultural literacy in families, especially for children, is to foster an understanding of Indonesian culture as a national identity and enrich the ability to understand their rights and obligations as citizens from an early age. The role of parents is also very important in directing and guiding children to understand the cultural values that exist around the neighborhood. The goal in cultural literacy in the family is that family members are able to understand Indonesian culture as a national identity and enrich their ability to understand their rights and obligations as citizens: (1) increasing the number and variety of cultural literacy reading material owned by the family; (2) Increasing the number of times the frequency of reading material for cultural literacy in the family every day; (3) Increasing the number of family members participating in activities that support the application of cultural literacy, such as family visits to traditional homes, museums, court, participation in general elections, etc..; (4) Increased family understanding of cultural values and (5) citizenship; and (6) Intensity of time with family to discuss, communicate and share about cultural literacy and citizenship.

2. Methods

Research is a scientific approach to answer or find solutions to a problem. This study aims to answer the problem of the right method used to analyze and improve family literacy in the village of Segaran, Batujaya District, Karawang Regency. Specifically, because what is used in this research is family literacy mapping, the purpose of this study is to find out how information literacy and cultural literacy in families. Based on the results of the analysis, a model for developing a family literacy development model was developed to improve cultural literacy in the communities around Batujara Temple, Segaran Village, Batujaya Subdistrict, Karawang District.

The research method is a systematic, rational and logical way and stage to collect, process and analyze data to answer scientific problems. The method used in this research is survey. Survey research method is a research method that is used to find data about the problem under study. The population in this study are 100 family from Segaran Village, Batujaya Subdistrict, Karawang District.

3. Results

Family literacy

Information literacy in the family studied consists of five dimensions, namely early literacy, parental involvement, access to information sources, extensive learning, and collaboration in monitoring literacy development.

Literacy needs to be nurtured since early childhood. Parents should stimulate and facilitate literacy early on for their children. The dimensions of literacy from an early age have a WMS (Weight Mean Score) value of 2.52 (1-4 scale) or 63% of ideal in the low category. There are 6% (6 people) of respondents doing early literacy in the high category, 39% (39 people) respondents doing early literacy in the moderate category, 37% (37 people) respondents doing early literacy in the low category, and 18% (18 people) respondents doing early literacy are in a very low category. Early literacy measured in this study consisted of indicators telling stories to children, reading books to children, storytelling, guiding learning and dialogue with children.

The dimensions of parental involvement have a WMS value of 2.40 (1-4 scale) or 60% of the ideal in the low category. There are 24% (24 people) of respondents 'involvement in fostering child literacy in the moderate category, 66% (66 people) of respondents' involvement in developing children's literacy are in the low category, and 10% (10 people) are involved parents in developing children's literacy are in a very low category. The involvement of parents in fostering early child literacy measured in this study consists of indicators: exemplary reading, suggesting reading books, inviting children to visit the library, inviting children to shop for books, buying newspapers or magazines, inviting children to read newspapers or magazines, watching news on television, inviting children to listen to news on television, accessing the internet to find the information needed, accompanying children while accessing the internet, subscribing to internet quota to facilitate access to information via the internet, asking questions from children at school, discussing difficulties learning that is experienced by children in school, parents take the time to read books together with children, take time to find information together with children through the internet, ask the meaning of the writings in public places, guide children to understand every writing in the book, encouraging children when experiencing difficulties in subject matter, advising when children have learning difficulties, facilitating children's reading activities, facilitating children's writing activities, assisting children when doing school work at home, asking for completion of assignments given by the teacher to children, and reading children's textbooks.

The dimension of access to information sources has a value of WMS 2.47 (scale 1-4) or 61% of ideal in the low category. There are 6% (6 people) of respondents having access to information sources in the high category, 36% (36 people) respondents having access to information sources in the medium category, 44% (44 people) respondents having access to information sources in the category low, and 14% (14 people) respondents have access to information sources in the very low category. Access to information sources measured in this study consisted of indicators: allocating income to buy books, spending money to buy books, knowing the distance traveled to the bookstore, realizing the importance of having textbooks outside the books provided by the school, knowing books needed to support the children's learning process, supporting the importance of building libraries in the house, buying bookshelves for the continuity of the home library, and buying books for the continuity of the home library.

The dimensions of access to information sources have a WMS value of 2.71 (1-4 scale) or 68% of the ideal in the medium category. There were 22% (22 people) of respondents doing extensive learning in the high category, 37% (37 people) of respondents doing learning broadly in the medium category, 26% (26 people) respondents doing learning broadly in the low category, and 15% (15 people) of respondents do learning widely in the very low category. The broad dimension of learning measured in this study consisted of indicators: realizing the importance of children taking tutoring activities after school, preparing children's needs to support extracurricular activities, ensuring children participate in school extracurricular activities, and asking for children's progress or development in the field.

The dimension of monitoring cooperation has a value of WMS 2.89 (1-4 scale) or 72.3% of the ideal in the medium category. There were 14% (14 people) of the collaboration partners in literacy monitoring in the high category, 58% (58 people) of the respondents in the literacy monitoring collaboration were in the moderate category, 17% (17 people) of the literacy monitoring cooperation were in the low category, and 11% (11 people) respondents doing learning are broadly in very low categories. Monitoring cooperation measured in this study consisted of indicators: communicating with teachers from children about the progress of their learning at school, taking the time to attend meetings at school, making good communication between teachers and my parents making children's academic achievements better, good communication between teachers and parents make children's non-academic achievements better, and guide children's learning activities at home.

Cultural literacy on family

Cultural literacy in the family studied is divided into three dimensions, namely frequency of reading sources of information on cultural literacy, participation of family members in cultural literacy, and understanding of local cultural values.

The frequency dimension of reading cultural information sources has a value of WMS 1.69 (1-4 scale) or 42% of the ideal in the very low category. There are 2% (2 people) of respondents having the frequency of reading cultural information sources in the medium category, 43% (43 people) of respondents having the frequency of reading cultural information sources in the low category, and 55% (55 people) respondents having the frequency of reading cultural information sources in the very low category. The dimensions of the frequency of reading cultural information sources measured in this study consist of indicators: reading material (such as books, magazines) about temples in Batujaya; visit the museum in the Batujaya Temple, read a collection of books in the museum in the Batujaya Temple, read reading material (such as books, magazines) about the culture of Karawang District, read information about Candi Batujaya on the internet, monitor children's reading materials (such as books, magazines) about temples in Batujaya, encourage children to read reading material (such as books, magazines) about temples in Batujaya, encourage children to visit museums in the Batujaya Temple, ask children to visit to the museum in the Batujaya Temple, read the collection of books in the museum in the Batujaya Temple, and encourage children to read the collection of books in the museum in the Batujaya Temple.

The dimensions of family members' participation in cultural literacy are WMS 1.59 (1-4 scale) or 39.7% of ideal in the very low category. 33% (33 people) of respondents had a family participation rate in cultural literacy in the low category, and 67% (67 people) of respondents had a very low level of family member participation in cultural literacy. The dimension of having a level of family member participation in cultural literacy measured in this study consists of indicators: reading a collection of books in the museum in the Batujaya Temple; reading material (such as books, magazines) about the culture of Karawang District, encouraging children to read reading material (such as books, magazines) about the culture of Karawang District, reading material (such as books, magazines) about the culture of Karawang District, reading information about Candi Batujaya on the internet. encourage children to read information about Candi Batujaya on the internet, read information about Candi Batujaya on the internet, learn about the culture in Karawang District through training, learn about the culture in Karawang District through training or activities in schools, participating in cultural festivals that in Karawang District, following a cultural festival in Karawang District, mastering the special arts of Karawang District, and mastering the special arts of Karawang District.

The dimension of understanding cultural values has a value of WMS 2.90 (scale 1-4) or 72.5% of the ideal in the very medium category. 30% (30 people) of respondents have an understanding of cultural values in cultural literacy in the high category, 50% (50 people) of respondents have an understanding of cultural values in cultural literacy in the medium category, 7% (7 people) have an understanding of cultural values in cultural literacy in the low category, and 13% (13 people) respondents have an understanding of cultural values in cultural literacy in very low. There are 30% (30 people) of respondents having an understanding of cultural values in cultural literacy in the high category, 50% (50 people) of respondents having an understanding of cultural values in cultural literacy in the medium category, 7% (7 people) having an understanding of cultural values in literacy culture is in a low category, and 13% (13 people) of respondents have a very low understanding of cultural values in cultural literacy. The dimension of understanding cultural values measured in this study consists of indicators evaluating the importance of learning the typical culture of Karawang District.

4. Discussion

Family literacy in family is in the low category with WMS (weigh mean score) of 2.60 (1-4 scale). the highest dimension is collaboration monitoring with WMS of 2.89 (medium category), and the weakest dimension is parental involvement in literacy activities in families with WMS of 2.40 (low category). The overall WMS average is 2.60 (low category).

The literacy dimension from an early age with the lowest indicator is telling stories to children when children are small (ages 0-7 years) with WMS 1.84 or 46% of ideal (low category). While the highest indicator is dialogue with children from early childhood (ages 0-7 years) with WMS 3.10 or 77.5% of ideal (medium category).

Dimensions of parental involvement in family literacy with the lowest indicator, namely internet quota subscription to facilitate access to information via the internet with WMS 1.19 or 29.8% of the ideal (very low category). While the highest indicator is advising when children have difficulty learning with WMS 3.43 or 85.8% of ideal (high category). dimension of access to learning resources with the lowest indicator, namely buying books for the continuity of home libraries with WMS 1.65 or 41.3% of ideal (low category). While the highest indicator is awareness of the importance of having textbooks outside the books provided by the school. With WMS 3.06 or 76.5% of the ideal (medium category).

The dimension of extended learning with the lowest indicator, which is to realize the importance of children participating in tutoring activities after school with WMS 2.53 or 63.3% of the ideal (medium category). While the highest indicator is preparing the needs of children who support extracurricular activities with WMS 2.84 or 71% of the ideal (medium category).

The lowest dimension of monitoring collaboration with indicators is that Mother communicates with the teacher from the child about the progress of her learning in school and good communication between the teacher and my parents makes the child's non-academic achievements better with WMS 2.71 or 67.8% of the ideal (medium category). While the highest indicator is guiding children's learning activities at home with WMS 3.09 or 77.3% of the ideal (medium category).

In the dimensions of reading cultural information sources with the lowest indicator, namely reading information about Candi Batujaya on the internet with WMS 1.20 or 30% of the ideal (very low category). While the highest indicator is the Son / Daughter of Mr. / Ms visiting the museum in the Batujaya Temple with WMS 2.42 or 60.5% of the ideal (medium category).

In the dimensions of family member participation in cultural literacy with the lowest indicator, namely reading information about Candi Batujaya on the internet with WMS 1.20 or 30% of the ideal (very low category). While the highest indicator is the visiting the museum in the Batujaya Temple with WMS 2.42 or 60.5% of the ideal (medium category).

Based on the results of the study, it was found that family literacy and cultural literacy in the family in Segaran Village, Batujaya Subdistrict were still in poor condition. For this reason, it is recommended to conduct family empowerment interventions to improve cultural literacy in the family.

5. Conclusion

Based on the results of the research it was concluded that: (1) family literacy is in the low category with WMS (weigh mean score) of 2.60 (1-4 scale). The highest dimension is collaboration monitoring with WMS of 2.89 (medium category), and the weakest dimension is parental involvement in literacy activities in families with WMS of 2.40 (low category); (2) cultural literacy in the Segaran Village community in Batujaya District is in the low category with a WMS value of 2.06 (1-4 scale). The highest dimension is the understanding of cultural values with WMS of 2.90 (medium category), and the weakest dimension, namely the participation of family members in cultural literacy with WMS of 1.59 (very low category); and (3) family literacy has a positive and significant effect on cultural literacy. Family literacy contributes 15.6% to cultural literacy. To improve cultural literacy in the Segaran Village community, Batujaya District can be done by intervening on family literacy through stimulation and mentoring programs for family literacy. To improve cultural literacy can use intervention through family literacy.

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