KnE Social Sciences | 3rd UNJ International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training 2018 (3rd ICTVET 2018) | pages: 19–31

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1. Introduction

Indonesia has 1340 various tribes [8]. Each tribe has its own culture, so each region has its food characteristics. According to Hadisantosa in FG Winarno et al [18], regional foods or traditional foods consumed by ethnic group society and a specific region, processed by recipes known to society. The ingredients came from local sources and had a taste which is relatively by the tastes of local society. Based on lexical meaning, traditional foods have a relationship between food and the specific tradition of society. William Wongso [14] said that there is no Indonesian food, but there is a collection of various regional dishes within the territory of Indonesia. Each ethnicity has its peculiarities even in the same dish. Food used as a unifying nation or a harmonious relationship between ethnic groups in Indonesia, even as a nation branding in the dining table diplomacy. It has an impact on the country's economy and popularity as has been done by Thailand, Japan, Korea and others. Many things that must be prepared to be used as a nation branding need to be made an effort to (1) increase the way of serving traditional food by utilizing new technology equipment and presented in an exciting manner; (2) increase the quality of traditional food both organoleptically, nutritional quality, sanitation and hygiene and the environment; (3) increase the economic value of traditional food; (4) increase efforts to expand traditional food to other regions; and (5) increase business owner's capital of traditional food.

Soto is one of the traditional dishes consumed by almost all Indonesian people. A variant of Soto in this country causes Indonesia to be called the land of 1001 Soto. Considering the variety of traditional food recipes, especially Soto, it is difficult to use as a reference in formulating formulas and processing them. As a first step, it is necessary to compile the codification of Indonesian culinary, especially Soto, by analyzing the structure of ingredients, seasonings, making techniques and presentation. Codification means the classification of Indonesian Soto.

2. Methods and Equipment

Methods

This study was a literature study that obtained from various sources such as journals, books, archives, magazines, articles, documentation, internet, libraries, and documents that are relevant to the problems studied. The collection of literature related to Indonesian Soto followed by the selection of literature that fitted the criteria, namely: listed author, publisher, details of recipes, liquids, ingredients, condiment, crackers or chips, condiment and other supplementary ingredients. One literature fulfilled the requirements of Soto recipe and followed by tabulation and triangulation though in-depth observation and interviews with Soto sellers and informants who came from the Soto region and competent to process them in Jakarta - Bogor - Depok - Tangerang - Bekasi (Jabodetabek). The selection of Soto stalls or restaurants sold typical Soto from their region. Both the seller and owner came from the Soto region. Customers came from the Soto region. The triangulation result continued to the codification of the Indonesian culinary, especially Soto.

3. Results

Clear Soto

Table 1

(a): Clear Soto: white paste seasoning, typical seasoning, typical seasoning of each Soto, liquid stock, condiment.


No. Name of Soto <White Paste Seasoning < Typical Seasoning of Soto <Typical Seasoning of Each Soto < Liquid Stock Content Material Condiment
Gar Sha Can Leg Cor Gal Gin Lel Sal Pep Chs Bes Ans Frs Frg Lee Chi Cel Tom
1 Soto Ayam Solo    - - Chicken, vermicelli, bean sprout
2 Coto Makasar    -    - -    - Beef, chicken lung, chicken tripe, chicken heart, chicken intestine
3 Soto Buwono    -    - -    - Beef, chicken tripe, boiled egg
4 Soto Grombyang    - -    - -    - Beef
5 Soto Iga    - -    - -    -    - Beef ribs, radish
6 Soto Kudus    -    - -    - - Chicken, vermicelli, bean sprout, tea egg
7 Soto Kwali    -    - Beef, vermicelli
8 Soto Lamongan    - - Chicken, chicken liver, vermicelli, chicken heart,
9 Soto Lento    - -    - - Chicken, cassava cake cabbage, vermicelli
10 Soto Magetan    - - Chicken, vermicelli, boiled egg, bean sprout
11 Soto Mie Bogor    -    -    - Beef, yellow noodle, cabbage, risoles
Table 2

No. Name of Soto <White Paste Seasoning < Typical Seasoning of Soto <Typical Seasoning of Each Soto < Liquid Stock Content Material Condiment
Gar Sha Can Leg Cor Gal Gin Lel Sal Pep Chs Bes Ans Frs Frg Lee Chi Cel Tom
12 Soto Mie Udang    -    -    - -    - -    - Shrimp, yellow noodle, fried tofu, boiled egg, vermicelli,
13 Soto Nangka    -    -    - Beef ribs, jackfruit
14 Soto Ngasem    - -    -    - - Chicken, vermicelli, bean sprout, mature tempeh
15 Soto Pamekasan    - - Chicken, vermicelli, bean sprout, cassava cake, boiled egg, shrimp
16 Soto Seger    - Beef/ chicken meat, bean sprout,
17 Soto Slawi    - -    -    - - Chicken, vermicelli, bean sprout
18 Soto Sokaraja    -    -    - Beef, bean sprout, vermicelli, fried soy
19 Soto Sumenep    -    - -    -    - Beef, boiled egg
20 Soto Tegal    - -    - -    -    - Beef, bean sprout, vermicelli
21 Soto Banjar    - -    - -    - - Chicken, vermicelli, boiled egg, potato cake
22 Soto Bandung    -    -    -    - Meat, soybean, radish
Gar Sha Can Leg Cor Gal Gin Lel Sal Pep Chs Bes Ans Frs Frg Lee Chi Cel Tom
23 Soto Bebek Surabaya    -    - -    - - Duck, vermicelli
24 Tauto    -    -    -    - Beef, bean sprout, boiled egg
25 Soto Kedu    - -    -    -    - Meat, bean sprout,, mature tempeh, cabbage
26 Soto Kikil    -    -    -    - Kikil, cabbage
27 Soto Mahakam    - -    -    - -    -    - - Chicken, boiled egg, potato cake
28 Soto Padang    -    -    - Beef, vermicelli, potato cake
29 Soto Semarang    -    -    - - Chicken, vermicelli, bean
sprout
30 Soto Tenggiri    -    - -    -    -    - - Tenggiri fish
Gar = Garlic Leg = Lemon Grass Lel = Lemon Leaf Chs = Chicken Stock Frs = Fried Shallot
Sha = Shallot Cor = Coriander Sal = Salam Leaf Bes = Beef Stock Frg = Fried Garlic
Can = Candlenuts Gal = Galangal Pep = Pepper Ans = Another Stock Lee = Leek
Gin = Ginger Chi = Chives
Cel = Celery
Tom = Tomatoes
Table 1

(b): Clear Soto: crackers and chip, chili sauce, other complementary ingredients, food staple.


No. Name of Soto Crackers and Chips Chili Sauce <Other Complementary Ingredients Food Staple in Soto
Emp Km Kbw Kud Kke Cri Sgo Ska Sre Sta Ske Acr Kms Jel Jen Jek Bur Ket Lon Nas
1 Soto Ayam Solo    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
2 Coto Makasar    - -    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -    -    - -
3 Soto Buwono    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
4 Soto Grombyang    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
5 Soto Iga    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
6 Soto Kudus    - -    - -    -    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -
7 Soto Kwali    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
8 Soto Lamongan    - -    -    - -    - -    - -    -    -    - -    - -
9 Soto Lento    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
10 Soto Magetan    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    -    - -    - -    - -
11 Soto Mie Bogor    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    -    - -    - -    -
12 Soto Mie Udang    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -    -
13 Soto Nangka    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
14 Soto Ngasem    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
15 Soto Pamekasan    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -
16 Soto Seger    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    -
17 Soto Slawi    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -
18 Soto Sokaraja    - -    - -    -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
No. Name of Soto Crackers and Chips Chili Sauce <Other Complementary Ingredients Food Staple in Soto
Emp Km Kbw Kud Kke Cri Sgo Ska Sre Sta Ske Acr Kms Jel Jen Jek Bur Ket Lon Nas
19 Soto Sumenep    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -
20 Soto Tegal    - -    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    -    - -    - -
21 Soto Banjar    -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -
22 Soto Bandung    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -    - -    - -    -
23 Soto Bebek Surabaya    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
24 Tauto    - -    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    -    - -    - -
25 Soto Kedu    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
26 Soto Kikil    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
27 Soto Mahakam    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    -    -    - -    - -
28 Soto Padang    -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -
29 Soto Semarang    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    -    -    - -    - -
30 Soto Tenggiri    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -
Crackers and Chips Chili Sauce Other Complementary Ingredients Food Staple in Soto
Emp = Emping Cri = Slice of Cayenne Paper Acr = Mixed Pickles Bur = Burasa
Km = Red Cracker Sgo = Fried chili sauce Kms = Soy Sauce Ket = Ketupat
Kbw = Onion Cracker Ska = Peanut chili sauce Jel = Lime Lon = Rice Cake
Kud = Shrimp Cracker Sre = Boiled chili sauce Jen = Lemon Nas = Rice
Kke = Potato Cracker Sta = Tauco (fermented soybean chili sauce) Jek = Jeruk Kunci
Ske = Chili soy sauce

Thick Soto

Table 2

(a): Clear Soto: white paste seasoning, typical seasoning, typical seasoning of each Soto, liquid stock, condiment.


No. Name of Soto <White Paste Seasoning < Typical Seasoning of Soto <Typical Seasoning of Each Soto < Liquid Stock Content Material Condiment
Gar Sha Can Leg Cor Gal Gin Lel Sal Pep Chs Bes Ans San Frs Frg Lee Chi Cel Tom
1 Laksa Betawi    - -    -    - - Chicken, shrimp, bean sprout, vermicelli, basil    - -    - - -
2 Laksa Bogor    - -    -    -    - - Chicken, Shrimp, bean sprout, vermicelli, egg    - -    - - -
3 Soto Aceh    -    -    - Beef    -    -
4 Soto Belitung    -    - - Chicken, potato    -    - - -
5 Soto Betawi    -    - -    -    - Beef, chicken tripe    -    - -
6 Soto Kediri    -    - -    - - Chicken, bean sprout, boiled egg, cabbage    - -    - -
7 Soto Kuning Bogor    -    -    -    - Beef, chicken tripe, chicken lung    - -    - -
8 Empal Gentong    -    - -    - Beef, chicken offal    -    - -
9 Soto Sulung    - -    -    - -    - Beef, chicken lung, chicken tripe, chicken intestine    - -    - -
10 Soto Medan    - Chicken meat/ beef, potato cake, bean sprout    - -    - -
11 Soto Tangkar    -    -    - Beef, ribs    -    - -
12 Soto Tasik    -    -    - Chicken, meat, radish    -    - - -
13 Soto Kambing Ngelo    -    -    - - Lamb, bean sprout    -    - -
14 Soto Banten    -    -    - -    - - Cow offal    - -    - - -

(b): Clear Soto: crackers and chip, chili sauce, other complementary ingredients, food staple.

No. Name of Soto Crackers and Chips Chili Sauce <Other Complimentary Ingredients Food Staple in Soto
Emp Km Kbw Kud Kke Cri Sgo Ska Sre Sta Ske Acr Kms Jel Jen Jek Bur Ket Lon Nas
1 Laksa Betawi    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -    - -    - -    -
2 Laksa Bogor    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -    - -    - -    -
3 Soto Aceh    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
4 Soto Belitung    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
5 Soto Betawi    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -    - -    - -
6 Soto Kediri    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
7 Soto Kuning Bogor    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -    - -    - -
8 Empal Gentong    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
9 Soto Sulung    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    -    -    - -    - -
10 Soto Medan    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    -    -    - -    - -
11 Soto Tangkar    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    -    - -    - -    -
12 Soto Tasik    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
13 Soto Kambing Ngelo    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -    - -
14 Soto Banten    - -    - -    - -    -    - -    - -    - -    - -    - -
Crackers and Chips Chili Sauce Other Complementary Ingredients Food Staple in Soto
Emping Cri = Slice of Cayenne Paper Acr = Raw Pickle Bur = Burasa
Red Cracker Sgo = Fried chili sauce Kms = Soy Sauce Ket = Ketupat
Onion Cracker Ska = Peanut chili sauce Jel = Lime Lon = Rice Cake
Shrimp Cracker Sre = Boiled chili sauce Jen = Lemon Nas = Rice
Potato Cracker Sta = Tauco (fermented soybean chili sauce) Jek = Jeruk Kunci
Ske = Chili soy sauce
Figure 1

Histogram of white paste seasoning of Soto (a) and typical seasoning of Soto (b).

fig-1.jpg

A white paste seasoning of Soto included red onion (Allium Cepa), garlic (Allium Sativum) and candlenut (Aleurites Moluccana). Typical seasoning of Soto used lemongrass, coriander, galangal, ginger, lemon leaf, Salam leaf, and pepper. Liquid stock used chicken stock, and coconut milk for thick Soto. The content material used animal protein, mostly meat and chicken, vegetables such as cabbage, sprouts, bean sprouts, yellow noodles, and a group of vermicelli. The condiment is predominantly using fried onions. Crackers or chips used Emping. A chili sauce used is boiled chili sauce and fried chili sauce. Other complimentary ingredients used fresh pickles and many oranges. A staple food for Soto is white rice, Ketupat, and rice cake, while Burasa only used in some types of Soto.

Completed white paste seasoning used by 20 of 30 clear Soto (66.6%) and 13 of 14 clear Soto (92.8%). The white paste seasoning did not use candlenut by 9 of 30 clear Soto (30%) and 1 of 14 Thick Soto (7.1%). Completed typical seasoning of Soto used 7 of 30 clear Soto (23.3%) and 1 of 14 thick Soto murky (7.1%). The typical seasoning of Soto did not use lemon leaf, pepper and ginger. It depends on the type of Soto processed in the form of seasoning and herbs used. If Soto gets influence from Middle Eastern and Indian cultures, the seasoning is more varied. Whereas, if Soto gets influence from China, the use of garlic is predominantly in white paste seasoning. A triangulation result showed that 77.2% of data from recipe books with real conditions are very suitable.

4. Discussion

In clear Soto, candlenut, that did not use complete white paste seasoning, serves as a 30% savory flavor, because it used another seasoning that also functions as a savory flavor like Tauco in Soto Tauco, potato cakes in Soto Padang, duck meat with high fat in Soto Bebek Surabaya and peanuts in Soto Mahakam. Also, there were types of Soto that wanted the results to be clear, not strong- flavored, and not too savory like Soto Bandung, Soto Kikil, Soto Semarang, and others. In thick Soto, the majority used complete white paste seasoning (92.8%) because they wanted a thick and delicious result. For typical seasoning of Soto majority did not use 2-3 types (22.2% each seasoning) which dominated by coriander, ginger and pepper. It was due to the use of condiment in typical seasoning. Each typical seasoning of Soto differed one Soto course and other Soto course. In thick Soto, adding coconut milk made Soto more savory than clear Soto. The content material of each Soto generally adjusted to the results of food in their respective regions.

5. Conclusion

With the increasing quality of Indonesian Soto, this course is not only consumed by the local society as well as the Indonesian people, but also it can also be served as an international course on soup course group about the choice of Soto course, amount of seasoning, cut shaping and serving. In conclusion, Soto can use in various dining table diplomacy events that can use as a promotion as a nation branding.

Funding

This research was funded by the Badan Layanan Umum (BLU) Faculty of Engineering, State University of Jakarta.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank their colleagues for their contribution and support to the research, and also to all the reviewers who gave their valuable inputs to the manuscript and helped in the completion of it.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

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