KnE Social Sciences | 3rd UNJ International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training 2018 (3rd ICTVET 2018) | pages: 10–18

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1. Introduction

The number of non-linear load applications in the electric power system has made the system become distorted with a very high percentage of harmonic content. THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) is the ratio between the rms value of all harmonic components to the rms value of its fundamental value and usually calculated in percent. Generally, the distorted electric power system dominated by low-frequency odd order, that is, the fifth, seventh, eleven and so on harmonics, whose magnitude inversely proportional to the harmonic order.

The high percentage of total harmonic distortion (THD) in an electric power system can cause several harmonic severe problems in the system and its environment. Such as the occurrence of resonance in the system that damages the capacitor, makes the system power factor worse, creates interference with the telecommunications system, increases losses of the system, causing various kinds of damage to sensitive equipment, that all of which cause the use of electrical energy to in effective.

Hybrid power plants that combine solar cells power plant with wind power plant usually used for the supply of lower middle electricity such as the fulfillment of electrical energy of a house or building. This generator works with a battery charging system. Electricity produced by each power plant will charge the battery that prepared according to needs. Solar cells power plant will work in the morning to evening as long as there still sunlight, while the wind power plant will work according to the wind conditions in the region. However, electricity from each generator only produces DC inputs. Therefore, AC inverters will play an essential role in converting DC energy from solar cells power plant or wind power plant into AC electrical energy that we use a day.

However, inverter also tend to produce harmonics and the emergence of harmonics due to non-linear loads will also affect inverter performance. Based on this, the researcher will try to focus on analyzing how much Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion (V-THD) and Current Total Harmonic Distortion (I-THD) occurs in the inverter as a result of the many electrical non linear load.

2. Methods and Equipments

Methods

This research carried out using the experimental method by observing and measuring the initial conditions of harmonics. Then the inverter treated with non-linear load changes.

Equipment

The equipement that used in the research are PQA Hioki 3198 and electric loads such as compact fluorescent lamp, fluorescent tube lamp with electronic ballast, LED lamp, LED television, laptop, deskptop, printer, and refrigerator.

3. Results

Voltage total harmonic distortion

Before measuring each load, the author measures the inverter without using a load because as discussed in the previous chapter that the inverter itself produces harmonics. Here the results of voltage harmonics measurements on the inverter without load.

Table 1

The results of voltage harmonic measurements on the onverter wihout load.


Orde (V) Orde (V) Orde (V) Orde (V)
0 0,35 16 0,02 32 0,01 48 0
1 225,17 17 0,45 33 0,1 49 0,02
2 0,06 18 0,03 34 0,01 50 0
3 1,64 19 0,57 35 0,08
4 0,03 20 0,04 36 0,01
5 0,72 21 0,85 37 0,06
6 0,01 22 0,06 38 0
7 0,53 23 0,85 39 0,04
8 0,02 24 0,05 40 0
9 0,44 25 0,54 41 0,03
10 0,01 26 0,04 42 0
11 0,4 27 0,34 43 0,02
12 0,02 28 0,02 44 0
13 0,38 29 0,21 45 0,03
14 0,02 30 0,01 46 0
15 0,39 31 0,11 47 0,03
𝑉𝑇𝐻𝐷0=Vh22+Vh32+Vh42+Vh52++Vhn2Vh1×100%=6,6172225,17×100%
𝑉𝑇𝐻𝐷0=2,572392225,17×100%=1,14%

From the results of the calculations above, voltage total harmonic distortion (V-THD) without load was 1.14%.

The following the value of voltage total harmonic distortion (V-THD) measurements for each nonlinear loads that supplied by a single phase inverter:

Table 2

The value of V- THD measurements that supplied by a single phase inverter.


No. Load Power (W) V-THD (%)
1 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 5 5 1,18
2 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 10 10 1,23
3 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 15 15 1,30
4 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 20 20 1,33
5 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 25 25 1,37
6 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 30 30 1,41
7 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 35 35 1,48
8 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 40 40 1,52
9 LED Lamp 8 8 1,20
10 LED Lamp 16 16 1,29
11 LED Lamp 24 24 1,37
12 LED Lamp 32 32 1,45
13 LED Lamp 40 40 1,53
14 Fluorescent Tube Lamp with Electronic Ballast 40 1,51
15 LED Television 75 1,81
16 Laptop 44 1,61
17 Desktop 77 1,48
18 Printer 329 1,62
19 Refrigerator 106 1,03

Based on the table above, the highest voltage THD increase caused by the LED television load of 1.18%, while the lowest voltage THD caused by the refrigerator load of 1.03%. To facilitate the depiction of table data, it can described in the graph as follows

Figure 1

The graph of Voltage THD no load and with load.

fig-2.jpg

In the Figure 1 above shows that farther from the center point, greater of Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion. The farthest point is LED television load, and the closest point is the regrigerator load.

Current total harmonic distortion

The following the value of current total harmonic distortion (I-THD) measurements for each nonlinear loads that supplied by a single phase inverter:

Table 3

The value of I- THD measurements that supplied by a single phase inverter.


No Load Power (W) I-THD (%)
1 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 5 5 4,70
2 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 10 10 6,42
3 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 15 15 8,58
4 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 20 20 10,86
5 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 25 25 13,29
6 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 30 30 15,76
7 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 35 35 18,52
8 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 40 40 20,97
9 LED Lamp 8 8 6,83
10 LED Lamp 16 16 11,45
11 LED Lamp 24 24 16,48
12 LED Lamp 32 32 21,84
13 LED Lamp 40 40 26,97
14 Fluorescent Tube Lamp with Electronic Ballast 40 20,53
15 LED Television 75 39,57
16 Laptop 44 23,63
17 Desktop 77 29,27
18 Printer 329 32,65
19 Refrigerator 106 6,76

Based on the table above, the highest current THD increase caused by the LED television load of 39.57%, while the lowest current THD caused by refrigerator load of 6.76%. To facilitate the depiction of table data, it can described in the graph as follows

Figure 2

The graph of Current THD with load.

fig-4.jpg

In the Figure 2 above shows that farther from the center point, greater of Current Total Harmonic Distortion. The farthest point is LED television load, and the closest point is the regrigerator load

4. Discussion

In further analyzing the amount of voltage THD due to non-linear loads that supplied by a one-phase inverter refer to the IEEE 519 - 1992 standard where the maximum harmonic voltage limit for voltages below 69 kV is 5%. The following the voltage THD analysis tabulation according the IEEE 519 - 1992 standard

Table 4

The analysis of Voltage THD measurements according the IEEE 519 - 1992 standard.


No Load V-THD (%) Load IEEE 519-1992 (max.5%)
1 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 5 1,18 Still According to standard
2 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 10 1,23 Still According to standard
3 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 15 1,30 Still According to standard
4 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 20 1,33 Still According to standard
5 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 25 1,37 Still According to standard
6 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 30 1,41 Still According to standard
7 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 35 1,48 Still According to standard
8 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 40 1,52 Still According to standard
9 LED Lamp 8 1,20 Still According to standard
10 LED Lamp 16 1,29 Still According to standard
11 LED Lamp 24 1,37 Still According to standard
12 LED Lamp 32 1,45 Still According to standard
13 LED Lamp 40 1,53 Still According to standard
14 Fluorescent Tube Lamp with Electronic 1,37 Still According to standard
15 LED Television 1,81 Still According to standard
16 Laptop 1,61 Still According to standard
17 Desktop 1,48 Still According to standard
18 Printer 1,62 Still According to standard
19 Refrigerator 1,03 Still According to standard

From the table above, when compared with the IEEE 519 – 1992 standard, then all types of non-linear loads that get supplies from the inverter still within the safe limits for electronic devices.

In further analyzing the amount of current THD due to non-linear loads thats upplied by a one-phase inverter refer to the IEEE 519 - 1992 standard where the maximum harmonic current limit for Isc / IL > 1000 is 20%. The following the current THD analysis tabulation according the IEEE 519 – 1992 standard.

Table 5

The analysis of Current THD measurements according the IEEE 519 - 1992 standard.


No Load I-THD (%) IEEE 519-1992 (max.20%)
1 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 5 4,70 Still According to standard
2 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 10 6,42 Still According to standard
3 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 15 8,58 Still According to standard
4 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 20 10,86 Still According to standard
5 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 25 13,29 Still According to standard
6 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 30 15,76 Still According to standard
7 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 35 18,52 Still According to standard
8 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 40 20,97 Not According to standard
9 LED Lamp 8 6,83 Still According to standard
10 LED Lamp 16 11,45 Still According to standard
11 LED Lamp 24 16,48 Still According to standard
12 LED Lamp 32 21,84 Not According to standard
13 LED Lamp 40 26,97 Not According to standard
14 Fluorescent Tube Lamp with Electronic 20,53 Not According to standard
15 LED Television 39,57 Not According to standard
16 Laptop 23,63 Not According to standard
17 Desktop 29,27 Not According to standard
18 Printer 32,65 Not According to standard
19 Refrigerator 6,76 Still According to standard

From the table above, when compared with the IEEE 519 – 1992 standard, nonlinear loads such as compact fluorescent lamp 40W, LED lamp 32W, fluorescent tube lamp 40W with electronic ballast, LED television, laptop, desktop, and printer that get supplies from the inverter not within the safe limits for electronic devices.

5. Conclusion

The results showed that there an effect of changes in voltage harmonics, with the most significant increase in voltage THD caused by LED television load of 1,18%, and the lowest voltage THD caused by refrigerator load of 1,03%. However, when compared with IEEE 519 – 1992 standard, then all types of non-linear loads that get supplies from the inverter still within the safe limits for electronic devices. While the most significant current THD change caused by LED television of 39,57%, and the lowest current THD caused by refrigerator load of 6,76%. Change in current THD when compared to the IEEE 519 – 1992 standard with loads like compact fluorescent lamp 40W, LED lamp 32W, fluorescent tube lamp 40W with electronic ballast, LED television, laptop, desktop, and printer that get supplies from the inverter not within the safe limits for electronic devices, because they are not in accordance with IEEE 519 – 1992 standard.

Authors Biographies

Imam Arif Rahardjo is Lecture for Vocational Engineering Education Program of UNJ. Imam received bachelor degree from University State of Jakarta, and magister degree from University of Indonesia. Research focus area are in energy generation, energy audit, and power quality.

Purwanto Gendroyono is Lecture for Vocational Engineering Education Program of UNJ. Purwanto received bachelor degree from IKIP Jakarta, and magister degree from University of Gajah Mada. Research focus area is in power electronic.

Irzan Zakir is Lecture for Vocational Engineering Education Program of UNJ. Irzan received bachelor degree from IKIP Jakarta. Research focus area are in electrical, and education.

Suyitno Muslim is Lecture for Vocational Engineering Education Program of UNJ. Suyinto received bachelor degree from IKIP Jakarta, and doctoral degree from University State of Jakarta. Research focus area is in education technology.

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