KnE Social Sciences | International Conference on Economics, Business and Economic Education 2018 (ICE-BEES 2018) | pages: 273–288

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1. Introduction

The Law of the National Education System article 11 paragraph 3 (1989) in Bukit (2014: 35) states clearly that vocational education is an education that prepares students to be able to work in certain areas of work. The advantage of vocational education is the ability to provide opportunities for students to get the learning process by jumping directly into the business world / industry, so that students gain real experience and relevant to the field of vocational studies, moreoves providing the necessary skills [3]. Factors affecting the readiness of work are knowledge, skills, attitudes and values, all of which are necessary in determining his career (Winkel and Hastuti, 2007: 668[19]. Learning from vocational education in developed countries such as Europe, especially Germany there are five aspects to note in order for a vocational education to produce graduates with the skills to work. The five aspects are as follows: (1) Cooperation between government and company, (2) learning through real work process, (3) national standardization, (4) qualified teachers, (5) institutionalization of research and career guidance (Bukit, 2014: 40)[3].

Star, et al. (1982) in Wena (2009: 100) states that vocational education is closely related to the world of work or industry, the learning and practice training plays a key role to equip graduates in order to adapt to employment [16]. Students of SMK who follow the practice through PSG already know early that the practice activities that followed will be a provision for him to enter the employment and become provision of sustainable development itself (Bukit, 2014: 59-60) [3]. Kurniati (2015) concluded that the implementation of industrial work practices has a positive influence on the readiness of students for 18.23% [7]. Triwahyuni (2016) in his research also states that industrial work practices affect the readiness of work for 55.8% obtained from the calculation of the coefficient of determination partial variable of industrial work practices[14]. Other external factors that affect the readiness of student work is career guidance. Individual career can be developed through education both formal and non formal education. Enhance education can be done through their own efforts at their own expense or seek scholarships. Moreoves from the organization to make educational expenses through grants from organizational budgets (Sudarma, 2014) [11]. Career counseling is guidance in preparing for the world of work. in choosing a particular job or occupation / profession and equipping yourself to be ready to assume the position. and in adjusting to the demands of the employment that has been entered (Winkel and Hastuti, 2007: 114) [18].

One of the goals of career counseling is to understand and value oneself, especially with regard to the potential within her, of her abilities, interests, and talents. Ideals (Walgito, 2005: 195) [15]. Understanding above is supported by research Alfan (2014) who examines the influence of career guidance on readiness work [2]. Alfan (2014) concluded that there is a positive and significant influence of career guidance on student work preparedness for 48.1% [2]. Wulandari (2017) also conducted a similar study related to the influence of career guidance on job readiness. From the result of the research, the result of the positive influence of career guidance on job readiness for 12.96% [19]. Information about job world which covers all data about kinds of work in the society (fields of occupation), about gradient position in the scope of a position (level of occupation), regarding the requirements of the stage and type of education, regarding the occupational clarification system, and on future prospects related to the community's need for certain types of work (Winkel and Hastuti. 2007: 319) [18]. Fitriyaningsih (2017) in his research there is a positive and significant influence between the work world information on students' work readiness for 7.50% [5]. It means that the higher the world of work the higher the readiness of students work. In line with the research. Setiawan (2017) in his research also suggests that there is influence of the world for work information on the partial student work preparedness r = 0.396 with p = 0.008 [10].

According to Government Regulation No. 29 of 1990 Article 1, secondary education is education at secondary education level which prioritizes the development of students' ability to undertake certain types of work. The purpose of Vocational High School (SMK) education is to prepare students to be ready to enter the workforce. They are expected to have an insight to open up jobs for their future. The provision of life skill in the form of self-knowing skills, rational thinking skills, social skills, academic skills and vocational skills or vocational skills are expected to enable learners to have the independence to seek employment and open employment in the community (Oktarina) [8]. Therefore, every SMK has the responsibility to be able to meet the demands of the business world and industry after graduation can print graduates who are ready to work it is related to the supply of middle-level workers, because what we know now when we look for a job not only compete with one region but extends across the region throughout Indonesia. SMK graduates who have been guaranteed to have competence and skills when in the vocational school is expected to be a candidate for skilled workers and ready to directly work in accordance with his expertise. But, in reality not all vocational students who are in vocational secondary education, especially in Central Java Province can work immediately after he graduated from school.

Table 1

Population Aged 15 Years and Over Working According to the Highest Education Tested in Central Java Province 2016/2017 (million people).


Highest Education Saved 2016/2017
Workforce Non-Labor Force amount
Work Open Unemployment amount
No Primary School Degrees 3.035.369 68.262 3.103.631 1.970.892
Primary school 5.404.363 112.488 5.516.851 2.076.760
Junior high school 3.290.041 161.704 3.451.745 2.678.485
Senior High School 1.782.953 134.036 1.916.989 1.026.716
Vocational high School 1.713.308 271.828 1.985.136 521.627
Diploma I / II / III / Academy 353.760 22.839 376.599 87.519
university 931.342 30.173 961.515 108.434
Total 16.511.136 801.130 17.312.466 8.470.433
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) of Central Java Province (www.jateng.bps.go.id)

From the table can be seen that the absorption of labor force graduates of Vocational High School (SMK) in Central Java Province in 2016/2017 amounted to 17.133.308 million people and open unemployment of 271.828 million people. This is lower than that of Primary School graduates who work directly in 2016/2017 of 5.404.363 million people and for open unemployment of 112.488 million people. If we see from the data that in open unemployment more than graduate of Vocational High School (SMK) compared with Elementary School. So it can be concluded that the absorption of vocational graduates are still inferior to primary school graduates. The conclusion is supported by observation and interviews conducted by researchers with related parties. This research takes object at SMK Palebon Semarang which is Vocational High School with 4 skill program it has; Accounting, Office Administration, Multimedia, Marketing. So from several answers varying students are finally the researchers took the topic related to the readiness of the students because it is clear that the graduates of SMK are required after graduation work. In addition, it is also reinforced by data provided by the BKK that the absorption of SMK Palebon Semarang graduates in 2016/2017 processed per month in May for 53.33% graduate work is categorized as being (Ferdinand. 2014: 232) [4]. Can be seen in the table below:

Table 2

Graduate Data of Vocational High School Students Continuing to Higher Education and Working of the Academic Year 2016/2017. Source: SMK Palebon Semarang Special Job Exchange.

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Based on the results of interview on January 11 2018 with informant Miss Retno as the Manager of Special Working Exchange SMK Palebon Semarang stated that:

"Yes" most work but some are continuing to college. But it is mostly work because the students go to SMK main purpose after graduating school work directly and in addition we also work with the workof work by holding cooperation related to direct recruitment in school, after the students passed. If to work alone is not in accordance with his expertise because competition is now increasingly tight and must compete with other graduates from college (S1) or Diploma. Indeed, most students after graduating work directly but for those who work in accordance with the majors it is not much just a few. But there are also working in accordance with the field. For example from the department of education of office administration at the operator's parts factory. There is also the originally entered the operator part but long time appointed to administration".

Special Job Fair (BKK) is a strategic institution that requires good management and accountability in accordance with other organizational principles Moreoves in service of permanent placement for graduates based on the fundamental principles of system work (Widodo et al., 2015) [17]. The Institute should adopt a holistic and integrated approach to improve graduate work skills, stand-alone soft skills modules, student involvement in job-related projects and extra-curricular activities, job placements and skill guides for career-focused career work to minimize skills gaps. Another important thing is to introduce class-centered pedagogy. Student-centered pedagogy in the early stages of Education seems to be more helpful in developing soft skills (Al Mamun. 2012) [1]. According to the BKK during Industry Internship the problems faced only things that are not too heavy but still note the problems of students who sometimes can't adjust to the work environment. Sometimes, it does not yet able to comply with the regulations the work place, one example that is arriving late and the absence of students during Industry Internship. From the BKK side also acted directly in the issue. They try to remind the students not to repeat the mistake. If repeatedly warned not to heed the warning there will be follow-up from schools and companies where Industry Internship. Researchers have also conducted preliminary questionnaire dissemination on January 31. 2018 total of respondents amounted to 30 students. Questionnaires of preliminary study were given to 5 classes:

Table 3

A list of classes given a preliminary study questionnaire.


No. Kelas
1. XI Multimedia 2
2. XI Office administration 1
3. XI Office administration 2
4. XI accounting 1
5. XI marketing 1

In order to know in depth level of readiness of student work, researcher use Guttman measurement scale. Measurement scale with this type will get a firm answer, that is "yes-no"; "True False; "Never-no"; "Positive-negative" and others (Sugiyono. 2016b: 139) [13]. The reason researchers use the Guttman Scale because they want to get a firm answer to a question that is asked. Thus, from the preliminary study questionnaire, the following results were obtained:

Table 4

Preliminary questionnaire data preliminary study readiness.


Statement Students Amount
Yes No
I take the time every day to read books about the material concerned with vocational competence. 8 22 30
I train my skills in vocational competence by doing the exercises in the book. 10 20 30
I am able to communicate well with others to be ready to work. 20 10 30
I am fully prepared to go straight to work after graduation. 21 9 30
I am after graduation will continue to work in accordance with the field of time expertise in SMK. 15 15 30

The first statement that states every day they take the time to read the book of vocational competence material, of 30 respondents who answered "yes" sebesar 26.66% is categorized as low and who answered "no" for 73.33% is categorized high. The conclusion of the results of the first statement states that students are less ready to go directly to the workforce because we can see from the above results as many as 22 students said not to take the time to read the book vocational competence when we know that not only practice skills that must be owned they will but they must also study the theories available in the book to be their basis or guidance later. The second statement states that they train the ability of vocational competence by doing the exercises in the book, from 30 respondents who answered "yes" 33.33% are categorized as low and the answer "no" for 66.66% is sufficiently categorized. It can be seen from the table above that as many as 10 students do the vocational training competency exercises in the book and 20 students do not do the exercises. From these results when compared with students who read the book in this second statement students prefer to do the exercises that there is a book than reading a book even though only 2 students.

The third statement states that they are able to communicate well with other people to be ready to work, from 30 respondents who answered "yes" for 66.66% are categorized enough and who answered "no" for 33.33% are categorized as low. A total of 20 students stated that they are very good at communicating with others because they believe that when they can receive messages from others they can adapt to new and acceptable environments in the new environment. The new environment can be declared the work environment. Their fourth statement is fully ready to go directly to the work world after graduation, from 30 respondents who answered "yes" for 70% are categorized as being and who answer "no" for 30% are categorized being. So, from the revelation they stated ready to work after graduating vocational as many as 21 students. Besides it is because we know that the graduate of SMK is intended to be ready to work in the business world and world industry. The fifth statement states that after graduation they will continue to work in accordance with the field of time expertise in SMK, from 30 respondents who answered "yes" for 50% are categorized as being and who answer "no" for 50% are categorized being. So, the results of the questionnaire of 30 respondents who answered in accordance with the majors in vocational schools as many as 15 students and who are not in accordance with the department in vocational as many as 15 students.

2. Methods of Study

The type of research used in this study is quantitative research. Quantitative research methods can be interpreted as a research method based on positivism philosophy, used to examine the population or a particular sample, sampling techniques are generally done randomly, data collection using research instruments, quantitative / statistical data analysis with the aim to test the hypothesis has been established (Sugiyono. 2016b: 14)[13]. Researchers use a causal research design. Sanusi (2017: 14) explains that the design of causal research is a research design that is structured to examine the possibility of causality among variables [9]. Population is also not just the number of objects / subjects studied. but includes all characteristics / properties possessed by the subject or object (Sugiyono. 2016a: 80) [12]. The population in this study students of Class XI SMK Palebon Semarang academic year 2017/2018 which amounted to 237 people. Sampling technique used in this research is probability sampling technique with proportional random sampling.

This variable contains three independent variables. Industry Internship (X1), indicator in this research use indicator: preparation stage, stage of demonstration, impersonation stage, practice stage, and evaluation phase. Career Guidance (X2), in this study the indicators used for career guidance variables: self-understanding, values, environmental understanding, obstacles and overcoming obstacles, and planning for the future. Working World Information (X3), in this study the indicators used for the working world information variables: accurate and precise, clear, relevant, interesting, free of all subjective factors. Moreoves useful and useful. This study there is one dependent variable that is Readiness Work Students. Dependent variables, indicators used are knowledge, skills and attitudes and values. Data collection methods used observation, interview, and questionnaire. Data analysis techniques used classical assumption analysis, multiple regression analysis, hypothesis test analysis, and descriptive percentage analysis using SPSS for Windows Release 23 program.

Multiple regression analysis

Data analysis used in this research by using multiple regression analysis. Hypothesis proposed in this research there are 4, namely: Analysis of data used in this study by using multiple regression analysis. Hypothesis proposed in this research there are 4, that is: (1) There positive influence of Industry Internship career guidance, and information of work world together to readiness of student of class XI SMK Palebon Semarang Academic Year 2017/2018. (2) There is a positive influence of industrial work practice on the readiness of the students of class XI SMK Palebon Semarang Academic Year 2017/2018. (3) There is a positive influence of career guidance on the readiness of the students of class XI SMK Palebon Semarang for academic year 2017/2018. (4) There is a positive influence of the working world information on the readiness of students of class XI SMK Palebon Semarang Academic Year 2017/2018.

Table 5

Results of Multiple Regression Analysis.


Coefficients a
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 5.866 4.088 1.435 .153
Industry Internship .119 .053 .196 2.239 .027
Career Guidance .246 .057 .366 4.311 .000
Working word Information .203 .083 .220 2.447 .016
Dependent Variable: Industry Internship
Source: Primary Data is processed in 2018

Based on the table of multiple regression analysis results shows the multiple regression equation as follows:

Y=5.866+0.119X1+0.246X2+0.203X3+e

Constanta (a) has a value of 5.866 indicates that if the Work Practice of Industry (X1). Career Guidance (X2) and Working word Information (X3) is 0, the readiness of student work (Y) has a value for 5.866. Variable of experience of Industrial Work Practice (X1) has regression coefficient value equal for 0.119, this mean if other independent variable value remain or not change, hence every 1 point increase for 1% variable X1 will increase student work readiness value (Y) equal for 0.119. The career guidance variable (X2) has a regression coefficient value for 0.246, it means that if other independent variables are fixed or unchanged, then each 1 point increment or 1% variable X2 will increase the student's readiness score (Y) for 0.246. The working world information variable (X3) has a regression coefficient value for 0.203. it means that if other independent variables are fixed or unchanged, then each 1 point increment for 1% variable X3 will increase the student's readiness score (Y) for 0.203.

Simultaneous determination coefficient (R2)

Ghozali (2016: 95) determination coefficient (R2) essentially measures how far the ability of the regression model in explaining the variation of the dependent variable. The coefficient of partial determination (R2) is used to know the contribution given by each variable. The magnitude of the coefficient of determination (R2) is 0 to 1, the closer to 1 the coefficient of determination (R2) a regression equation the greater the influence of all independent variables to the dependent variable [6]. Conversely the closer coefficient of determination (R2), or the smaller regression equation also the influence of all independent variables on the dependent variable (the smaller the ability of the resulting model in explaining the change in the value of the dependent variable). The coefficient of determination simultaneous used to know how percentage influence of X variable (industrial work practice. career guidance. and information of work world) to Y (readiness work) simultaneous. Know coefficient of determination doubled needed help using program SPSS For Windows Release 23 by looking the following summary model table:

Table 6

Results of Simultaneous Determination Coefficient calculation.


Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .691 a .477 .466 3.382
a.Predictors: (Constant). Working word Information. Career Guidance. Industry Internship
Source: Primary Data is processed in 2018

Based on the table of contribution of industrial work practices, career guidance and guidance of the working world information on the readiness of students is known from the value coefficient of determination Adjusted R Square that is equal for 0.466 (46.6%). It means that 46.6% work preparedness variables are explained by industry practice variables, career guidance and workplace information while the remaining 53.4% is influenced by other variables not examined in this study.

Partial determination coefficient (r2)

The partial determination coefficient (r2) is used to find out the contribution given by each variable of industrial work practice, career guidance, and working world information on the readiness of students of class XI SMK Palebon Semarang academic year 2017/2018 partially. To find out the magnitude of partial contribution can be seen from the coefficient of determination on the output SPSS for Windows Release 23 is on the table partial correlation column coefficient then the value is squared and converted into percentage form. The following table results from the partial determinant coefficient (r2):

Table 7

Partial Determination Coefficient Calculation Result.


Coefficients a
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig. Correlations
B Std. Error Beta Zero-order Parsial Part
1 (Constant) 5.866 4.088 1.435 .153
Industry Internship .119 .053 .196 2.239 .027 .579 .183 .134
Career Guidance .246 .057 .366 4.311 .000 .636 .337 .259
Working word Information .203 .083 .220 2.447 .016 .595 .199 .147
a. Dependent Variable: Industry Internship
Source: Primary Data is processed in 2018

Based on the table can be seen that the magnitude of partial value on the variable Industry Internship (X1) = 0.183, so that the influence of Industry Internship variable on the readiness of work that is (0.183) 2 × 100% = 3.34%. The amount of partial value on career guidance variables on job readiness (X2) = 0.337, so that the influence of career guidance variables on job readiness is (0.337) 2 × 100% = 11.35%. The amount of partial value on the variable of working world information (X3) = 0.199, so that the influence of variable of information of work world to work readiness is (0.199) 2 × 100% = 3.96%. Based on these calculations indicate that career guidance variables give the greatest influence on the readiness of students compared to the variable Industry Internship and information world work.

3. Discussion

Influence industry internship, career guidance and information the workplace of work preparedness

Based on the results of research using SPSS For Windows 23 application in multiple linear regression analysis: Y = 5.866 + 0.119X1 + 0.246X2 + 0.203X3 + e show that there is simultaneously positive and significant influence between Industry Internship, career guidance and information of work world to readiness of student of class XI SMK Palebon Semarang academic year 2017/2018. It means that if (industrial work practice), career guidance and working world information increased then the readiness of work will increase, on the contrary if (industrial work practice), career guidance and information world work decreased the readiness of work will decrease. The amount of influence between Industry Internship, career guidance, and work world information on the readiness of students of class XI SMK Palebon Semarang academic year 2017/2018 simultaneously can be seen from the coefficient of simultaneous determination obtained from adjusted R square of 46.6 % and the remaining 53.4% influenced by other variables not examined in this study. Looking at the results of hypothesis test simultaneously, the value of F arithmetic for variables industry internship, career guidance and working word information for 44.076 with a significance of 0.000 < 0.05 which means the value of t significant and Ha1 which reads "the higher Industry Internship, career guidance and information work world will be the higher level of readiness of students working class XI SMK Palebon Semarang academic year 2017/2018 "accepted".

Influence of career guidance on job readiness

The amount of influence of career guidance on job readiness for 11.35% obtained from the results of partial determination coefficient. Whereas if the results of partial hypothesis testing. the value of t arithmetic for career guidance variables for 4.311 with siginifikansi 0.00 < 0.05 which means the value of t significant and Ha3 which reads "the higher the career guidance, the higher the level of readiness of work owned by students of class XI SMK Palebon Semarang academic year 2017/2018 "accepted". The result of the analysis of percentage descriptions of this research data shows that the motivation to enter the work world is measured by using 5 indicators, namely self-understanding, values, environmental understanding, obstacles and overcoming obstacles and planning for the future. Based on these 5 indicators, respondents' answers show that they are in the high category with the index value of the variable 82.65. In detail, the understanding of the value indicator in Q43 statement, with the statement "I try to think positively with others" has the highest index value per item of 89.40 with the high category. While in self-understanding in the statement Q37 about "I know a career in accordance with my ability level" has the lowest index value of 77.05 with high category.

Influence of industry internship on job readiness

The amount of influence Industry Internship on student work readiness for 3.34% obtained from the results of partial determination coefficient. Meanwhile, when viewed from the results of partial hypothesis testing, the value of arithmetic for industrial practice variables of 2.239 with a significance of 0.27 < 0.05 which means the value of t significant and Ha2 which reads "the higher (industrial work practice), then the higher the level of readiness of students working class XI SMK Palebon Semarang academic year 2017/2018 "accepted". The result of analysis of percentage description of this research data indicates that (industrial work practice) is measured using 5 indicators namely preparation stage, stage of demonstration, impersonation stage, practice stage, and evaluation phase. Based on these 5 indicators, respondents' answers show that they are in the high category with the value of the variable index for 82.66. In detail indicates that the understanding of the preparatory stage indicator in Q14 statement, with the statement "I understand the purpose and benefits of Industry Internship" has the highest index value per item for 88.14 with high category. While at the practice stage in the Q29 statement about "Industry Internship place I can cover all subjects productive subjects I" has the lowest index value for 71.07 with high category.

The influence of the working word information on job readiness

The amount of influence of the working world information on student work readiness for 3.96% obtained from the coefficient of partial determination. Mean while, if seen from the results of partial hypothesis testing. the value of t arithmetic for the working world information variable for 2.477 with a significance for 0.016 < 0.05 which means the value of t significant and Ha4 which reads "the higher the world of work, the higher the level of readiness of work students of class XI SMK Palebon Semarang Academic Year 2017/2018 "accepted". The result of the analysis of percentage descriptions of this research data shows that the information of the working world is measured using 6 indicators that accurate and accurate, clear, relevant. Interesting, free from subjective,useful and useful factors. Based on these 6 indicators, respondents' answers indicate that they are in the high category with the value of the variable index for 81.73. In detail that understanding of the indicator is useful and useful in the Q71 statement, the statement "work information that I get makes it easy for me to make a decision to work" has the highest index value per item for 96.64 with high category. While in self-understanding in Q69 statement about "I get job information in the office of Labor" has the lowest index value for 77.18 with high category.

4. Conclusion

There is a positive and significant influence Industry Internship, career guidance and information world work on the readiness of students of class XI SMK Palebon Semarang academic year 2017/2018 which means the higher (industrial work practice), career guidance, and information world of work hence the higher level of readiness of student work. There is a positive and significant influence partially between (industrial work practice) on the readiness of students of class XI SMK Palebon Semarang academic year 2017/2018 which means the higher (industrial work practice) the higher the level of readiness of students work. There is a positive and significant influence partial between career counseling to the readiness of students working class XI SMK Palebon Semarang academic year 2017/2018 which means the higher the career guidance the higher the readiness of student work. There is a positive and significant influence partially between the work world information on the readiness of the students of class XI SMK Palebon Semarang academic year 2017/2018; it means the higher the world of work information the higher the readiness of student work.

5. Suggestion

Based on the results of the discussion of career guidance variables on job readiness has little or no maximum influence. This is reinforced by the results of distribution analysis obtained the lowest index number on the statement of students knowing career in accordance with their respective ability level. Teachers as parents in school have a responsibility to improve careers and develop the careers of every student. Teachers provide encouragement and motivation to students in order to develop a career and foster self-confidence of each student. Based on the results of the discussion of Industry Internship on job readiness has little or no maximum influence. This is reinforced by the results of distribution analysis obtained the lowest index number with the statement where Industry Internship can cover all subjects productive subjects. Industry Internship premises should be able to follow competency standards in accordance with the curriculum in schools. Based on the results of the discussion of the world of work information variables to the readiness of work has a very small or less than the maximum. This is reinforced by the results of distribution analysis obtained the lowest index number with the statement of students obtain the world job information in the Department of Manpower. We recommend that schools reproduce the world of work information and clear about the origin of the information so that students more easily in finding working world information.

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